full transcript

From the Ted Talk by Jeff Iliff: One more reason to get a good night's sleep

Unscramble the Blue Letters

So the brain has this large pool of caeln, clear fluid called cerebrospinal fluid. We call it the CSF. The CSF fills the sacpe that surrounds the brain, and wastes from inside the brain make their way out to the CSF, which gets dumped, along with the waste, into the blood. So in that way, it sounds a lot like the lymphatic system, doesn't it? But what's interesting is that the fluid and the waste from inside the brain, they don't just pceratole their way randomly out to these ploos of CSF. Instead, there is a sciiplaeezd network of plumbing that organizes and fittaaliecs this process. You can see that in these videos. Here, we're again imaging into the brain of living mice. The frame on your left shows what's happening at the brain's surface, and the frame on your right shows what's happening down below the surface of the brain within the tissue itself. We've labeled the blood vessels in red, and the CSF that's surrounding the brain will be in green. Now, what was surprising to us was that the fluid on the outside of the brain, it didn't stay on the outside. Instead, the CSF was pumped back into and through the biran along the oesiutds of the blood vessels, and as it flushed down into the brain along the outsides of these vessels, it was actually helping to claer away, to clean the waste from the spaces between the brain's cells. If you think about it, using the outsides of these blood vessels like this is a really clever design solution, because the brain is enclosed in a rigid skull and it's pkcead full of cells, so there is no ertxa space inside it for a whole second set of vessels like the lymphatic system. Yet the blood vesesls, they extend from the srfauce of the brain down to rcaeh every single cell in the brain, which means that fluid that's traveling along the outsides of these vessels can gain easy access to the entire brain's volume, so it's actually this really clever way to repurpose one set of vessels, the blood vessels, to take over and replace the function of a second set of vessels, the lymphatic vessels, to make it so you don't need them. And what's amazing is that no other organ takes quite this approach to clearing away the waste from between its clles. This is a suoilotn that is entirely unique to the brain.

Open Cloze

So the brain has this large pool of _____, clear fluid called cerebrospinal fluid. We call it the CSF. The CSF fills the _____ that surrounds the brain, and wastes from inside the brain make their way out to the CSF, which gets dumped, along with the waste, into the blood. So in that way, it sounds a lot like the lymphatic system, doesn't it? But what's interesting is that the fluid and the waste from inside the brain, they don't just _________ their way randomly out to these _____ of CSF. Instead, there is a ___________ network of plumbing that organizes and ___________ this process. You can see that in these videos. Here, we're again imaging into the brain of living mice. The frame on your left shows what's happening at the brain's surface, and the frame on your right shows what's happening down below the surface of the brain within the tissue itself. We've labeled the blood vessels in red, and the CSF that's surrounding the brain will be in green. Now, what was surprising to us was that the fluid on the outside of the brain, it didn't stay on the outside. Instead, the CSF was pumped back into and through the _____ along the ________ of the blood vessels, and as it flushed down into the brain along the outsides of these vessels, it was actually helping to _____ away, to clean the waste from the spaces between the brain's cells. If you think about it, using the outsides of these blood vessels like this is a really clever design solution, because the brain is enclosed in a rigid skull and it's ______ full of cells, so there is no _____ space inside it for a whole second set of vessels like the lymphatic system. Yet the blood _______, they extend from the _______ of the brain down to _____ every single cell in the brain, which means that fluid that's traveling along the outsides of these vessels can gain easy access to the entire brain's volume, so it's actually this really clever way to repurpose one set of vessels, the blood vessels, to take over and replace the function of a second set of vessels, the lymphatic vessels, to make it so you don't need them. And what's amazing is that no other organ takes quite this approach to clearing away the waste from between its _____. This is a ________ that is entirely unique to the brain.

Solution

  1. vessels
  2. cells
  3. pools
  4. solution
  5. reach
  6. packed
  7. specialized
  8. outsides
  9. facilitates
  10. percolate
  11. extra
  12. brain
  13. space
  14. surface
  15. clear
  16. clean

Original Text

So the brain has this large pool of clean, clear fluid called cerebrospinal fluid. We call it the CSF. The CSF fills the space that surrounds the brain, and wastes from inside the brain make their way out to the CSF, which gets dumped, along with the waste, into the blood. So in that way, it sounds a lot like the lymphatic system, doesn't it? But what's interesting is that the fluid and the waste from inside the brain, they don't just percolate their way randomly out to these pools of CSF. Instead, there is a specialized network of plumbing that organizes and facilitates this process. You can see that in these videos. Here, we're again imaging into the brain of living mice. The frame on your left shows what's happening at the brain's surface, and the frame on your right shows what's happening down below the surface of the brain within the tissue itself. We've labeled the blood vessels in red, and the CSF that's surrounding the brain will be in green. Now, what was surprising to us was that the fluid on the outside of the brain, it didn't stay on the outside. Instead, the CSF was pumped back into and through the brain along the outsides of the blood vessels, and as it flushed down into the brain along the outsides of these vessels, it was actually helping to clear away, to clean the waste from the spaces between the brain's cells. If you think about it, using the outsides of these blood vessels like this is a really clever design solution, because the brain is enclosed in a rigid skull and it's packed full of cells, so there is no extra space inside it for a whole second set of vessels like the lymphatic system. Yet the blood vessels, they extend from the surface of the brain down to reach every single cell in the brain, which means that fluid that's traveling along the outsides of these vessels can gain easy access to the entire brain's volume, so it's actually this really clever way to repurpose one set of vessels, the blood vessels, to take over and replace the function of a second set of vessels, the lymphatic vessels, to make it so you don't need them. And what's amazing is that no other organ takes quite this approach to clearing away the waste from between its cells. This is a solution that is entirely unique to the brain.

Frequently Occurring Word Combinations

ngrams of length 2

collocation frequency
blood vessels 5
supply nutrients 2
living mouse 2
left shows 2
fluid rushing 2
sleeping brain 2

Important Words

  1. access
  2. amazing
  3. approach
  4. blood
  5. brain
  6. call
  7. called
  8. cell
  9. cells
  10. cerebrospinal
  11. clean
  12. clear
  13. clearing
  14. clever
  15. csf
  16. design
  17. dumped
  18. easy
  19. enclosed
  20. entire
  21. extend
  22. extra
  23. facilitates
  24. fills
  25. fluid
  26. flushed
  27. frame
  28. full
  29. function
  30. gain
  31. green
  32. happening
  33. helping
  34. imaging
  35. interesting
  36. labeled
  37. large
  38. left
  39. living
  40. lot
  41. lymphatic
  42. means
  43. mice
  44. network
  45. organ
  46. organizes
  47. outsides
  48. packed
  49. percolate
  50. plumbing
  51. pool
  52. pools
  53. process
  54. pumped
  55. randomly
  56. reach
  57. red
  58. replace
  59. repurpose
  60. rigid
  61. set
  62. shows
  63. single
  64. skull
  65. solution
  66. sounds
  67. space
  68. spaces
  69. specialized
  70. stay
  71. surface
  72. surprising
  73. surrounding
  74. surrounds
  75. system
  76. takes
  77. tissue
  78. traveling
  79. unique
  80. vessels
  81. videos
  82. volume
  83. waste
  84. wastes