full transcript

From the Ted Talk by Darien Satterfield: Real-life "Alien" jaws

Unscramble the Blue Letters

At some point millions of yares ago, early fish evolved a jointed oral jaw from one of the bony ahcers that setporpud their frontal gills. This exterior, oral jaw was perfect for capturing or chewing prey, but these early fish had a plrboem. They had no limbs to manipulate food while eating, mnakig it easy for their mlobie prey to epscae before they took the first bite. Essentially, it was impossible for fish to capture and chew their prey at the same time with just one set of jaws. So to hold their food and eat it too, an even deeper gill arch eeolvvd into a secondary set of jaws.

Open Cloze

At some point millions of _____ ago, early fish evolved a jointed oral jaw from one of the bony ______ that _________ their frontal gills. This exterior, oral jaw was perfect for capturing or chewing prey, but these early fish had a _______. They had no limbs to manipulate food while eating, ______ it easy for their ______ prey to ______ before they took the first bite. Essentially, it was impossible for fish to capture and chew their prey at the same time with just one set of jaws. So to hold their food and eat it too, an even deeper gill arch _______ into a secondary set of jaws.

Solution

  1. mobile
  2. escape
  3. supported
  4. problem
  5. making
  6. years
  7. arches
  8. evolved

Original Text

At some point millions of years ago, early fish evolved a jointed oral jaw from one of the bony arches that supported their frontal gills. This exterior, oral jaw was perfect for capturing or chewing prey, but these early fish had a problem. They had no limbs to manipulate food while eating, making it easy for their mobile prey to escape before they took the first bite. Essentially, it was impossible for fish to capture and chew their prey at the same time with just one set of jaws. So to hold their food and eat it too, an even deeper gill arch evolved into a secondary set of jaws.

Frequently Occurring Word Combinations

ngrams of length 2

collocation frequency
pharyngeal jaws 7
oral jaw 3
early fish 2
oral jaws 2

Important Words

  1. arch
  2. arches
  3. bite
  4. bony
  5. capture
  6. capturing
  7. chew
  8. chewing
  9. deeper
  10. early
  11. easy
  12. eat
  13. eating
  14. escape
  15. essentially
  16. evolved
  17. exterior
  18. fish
  19. food
  20. frontal
  21. gill
  22. gills
  23. hold
  24. impossible
  25. jaw
  26. jaws
  27. jointed
  28. limbs
  29. making
  30. manipulate
  31. millions
  32. mobile
  33. oral
  34. perfect
  35. point
  36. prey
  37. problem
  38. secondary
  39. set
  40. supported
  41. time
  42. years