full transcript

## Unscramble the Blue Letters

Now, you can do an experiment tonight over the reception, OK, to figrue out what that image will look like. Because it turns out that there is a kind of lens that we can devise, that has the right shape to produce this kind of effect. We call this gntiraitovaal lensing. And so, this is your instrument, OK. (lugehtar). But ignore the top part. It's the base that I want you to concentrate, OK. So, actually, at home, whenever we break a wineglass, I save the bottom, take it over to the mnahice shop. We shave it off, and I have a little gravitational lens, OK. So it's got the right shape to produce the lsienng. And so the next thing you need to do in your epmnieerxt is grab a napkin. I grabbed a piece of graph paper — I'm a physicist. (Laughter) So, a napkin. Draw a little mdoel galaxy in the middle. And now put the lens over the galaxy, and what you'll find is that you'll see a ring, an eesniitn ring. Now, move the base off to the side, and the ring will split up into arcs, OK. And you can put it on top of any image. On the graph paper, you can see how all the lnies on the gaprh paper have been dittsreod. And again, this is a kind of an acatrcue model of what happens with the gravitational lensing.

## Open Cloze

Now, you can do an experiment tonight over the reception, OK, to ______ out what that image will look like. Because it turns out that there is a kind of lens that we can devise, that has the right shape to produce this kind of effect. We call this _____________ lensing. And so, this is your instrument, OK. (________). But ignore the top part. It's the base that I want you to concentrate, OK. So, actually, at home, whenever we break a wineglass, I save the bottom, take it over to the _______ shop. We shave it off, and I have a little gravitational lens, OK. So it's got the right shape to produce the _______. And so the next thing you need to do in your __________ is grab a napkin. I grabbed a piece of graph paper — I'm a physicist. (Laughter) So, a napkin. Draw a little _____ galaxy in the middle. And now put the lens over the galaxy, and what you'll find is that you'll see a ring, an ________ ring. Now, move the base off to the side, and the ring will split up into arcs, OK. And you can put it on top of any image. On the graph paper, you can see how all the _____ on the _____ paper have been _________. And again, this is a kind of an ________ model of what happens with the gravitational lensing.

## Solution

1. model
2. laughter
3. distorted
4. lensing
5. lines
6. machine
7. graph
8. figure
9. gravitational
10. experiment
11. einstein
12. accurate

## Original Text

Now, you can do an experiment tonight over the reception, OK, to figure out what that image will look like. Because it turns out that there is a kind of lens that we can devise, that has the right shape to produce this kind of effect. We call this gravitational lensing. And so, this is your instrument, OK. (Laughter). But ignore the top part. It's the base that I want you to concentrate, OK. So, actually, at home, whenever we break a wineglass, I save the bottom, take it over to the machine shop. We shave it off, and I have a little gravitational lens, OK. So it's got the right shape to produce the lensing. And so the next thing you need to do in your experiment is grab a napkin. I grabbed a piece of graph paper — I'm a physicist. (Laughter) So, a napkin. Draw a little model galaxy in the middle. And now put the lens over the galaxy, and what you'll find is that you'll see a ring, an Einstein ring. Now, move the base off to the side, and the ring will split up into arcs, OK. And you can put it on top of any image. On the graph paper, you can see how all the lines on the graph paper have been distorted. And again, this is a kind of an accurate model of what happens with the gravitational lensing.

## Frequently Occurring Word Combinations

### ngrams of length 2

collocation frequency
dark matter 24
dark energy 7
big questions 3
gravitational effects 3
gravitational lensing 3
largest scale 2
ordinary matter 2
electromagnetic spectrum 2
einstein predicted 2
einstein ring 2
graph paper 2
hubble space 2
space telescope 2
gravitationally attracting 2
stephen hawking 2
billion years 2
gravitational attraction 2
mathematically consistent 2

### ngrams of length 3

collocation frequency
hubble space telescope 2

## Important Words

1. accurate
2. arcs
3. base
4. bottom
5. break
6. call
7. concentrate
8. devise
9. distorted
10. draw
11. effect
12. einstein
13. experiment
14. figure
15. find
16. galaxy
17. grab
18. grabbed
19. graph
20. gravitational
21. home
22. ignore
23. image
24. instrument
25. kind
26. laughter
27. lens
28. lensing
29. lines
30. machine
31. middle
32. model
33. move
34. napkin
35. paper
36. part
37. physicist
38. piece
39. produce
40. put
41. reception
42. ring
43. save
44. shape
45. shave
46. shop
47. side
48. split
49. tonight
50. top
51. turns
52. wineglass