full transcript

From the Ted Talk by Robert Lustig: Sugar Hiding in plain sight

Unscramble the Blue Letters

Sugar is pilyang hide and seek with you. You'd think it would be pertty easy for you to win, considering all the sugar in sodas, ice caerm, candy, and big white bags labeled sugar. People get about half of their added sugars from those drinks and treats, so it might seem like sugar is hiding in plain sight, but like someone in the wneists protection program, the other half is hidden in places you'd least suscept. Check the ingredients on ketchup, blngooa, spaghetti sauce, soy milk, sports drinks, fish sticks, and peanut beuttr. You'll find sugar hnidig in most of those products. In fact, you'll find adedd sarugs in three-quarters of the more than 600,000 items available in grocery stores. But how is sugar hiding? Can't you just look on food lelbas? It's not that easy. Just like your friend Robert might go by Bob, Robby, Rob, Bobby, or Roberto, added sugar has a lot of aliases. And by a lot, we don't mean five or six, try fifty-six. There's brown rice syrup, barley malt, demerara, Florida Crystals, muscovado, and, of course, high fructose corn syrup, sometimes called HFCS, or corn sagur. Even sugar's tricky nicknames have nicknames. Grape or apple cntotearcne has the same effects on your body as its 55 sugary twins. And even though organic evaporated cane juice sounds hteahly, when you evaporate it, you get sugar! Chemically speaking, it's all the same. And even trickier, when multiple added types of sugars are used in one type of product, they get buried down in a long list of ingredients, so the sugar content might appear to be okay, but when you add them all together, sugar can be the slgnie biggest ingredient. Currently, the FDA doesn't suggest a recommended daily limit for sugar, so it's hard to tell if this 65 gamrs in a btolte of soda is a little or a lot. But the World Health Organization recommends limiting sugar to just 5% of your total calories, or about 25 grams per day. So, 65 grams is well over twice that amount. But just what is sugar? What's the difference between glucose and fructose? Well, both are coedybaahrrts with the same chemical composition of carbon, hdyogren, and oxygen. But they have very different structures and behave quite differently in our bodies. Glucose is the best source of energy for nearly all organisms on Earth. It can be metabolized by all ognars in the body. Fructose, on the other hand, is mbeltazioed primarily in the lievr, and when your liver gets overloaded with sweet, sweet fructose, the excess is metabolized to fat. Fresh fruits actually contain fructose, but it's naturally occurring and doesn't cause an overload because the fiber in fruit slows its absorption. This gives your liver the time it needs to do its job. It's sugar that makes cookies cewhy and candy cucrhny. It even tnrus bread crust a beautiful, golden brown. It's also a great preservative; it doesn't spoil or evaporate, so the foods it's added to are easier to store and ship long distances and tend to be cheepar. That's why sugar is hiding everywhere. Actually, it might be easier to list the foods that added sugar isn't hiding in, things like: veeaglbets, eggs, meats, fish, fuirt, raw nuts, even your kitchen sink. Simply choosing water over soda, juices, and storps drinks is a gaert way to aoivd hidedn added sugar. At the very least, try to pay attention to food labels, so you can keep your sugar intake at a healthy level. Because in this game of hide and seek, every time you don't find added sugar, you win!

Open Cloze

Sugar is _______ hide and seek with you. You'd think it would be ______ easy for you to win, considering all the sugar in sodas, ice _____, candy, and big white bags labeled sugar. People get about half of their added sugars from those drinks and treats, so it might seem like sugar is hiding in plain sight, but like someone in the _______ protection program, the other half is hidden in places you'd least _______. Check the ingredients on ketchup, _______, spaghetti sauce, soy milk, sports drinks, fish sticks, and peanut ______. You'll find sugar ______ in most of those products. In fact, you'll find _____ ______ in three-quarters of the more than 600,000 items available in grocery stores. But how is sugar hiding? Can't you just look on food ______? It's not that easy. Just like your friend Robert might go by Bob, Robby, Rob, Bobby, or Roberto, added sugar has a lot of aliases. And by a lot, we don't mean five or six, try fifty-six. There's brown rice syrup, barley malt, demerara, Florida Crystals, muscovado, and, of course, high fructose corn syrup, sometimes called HFCS, or corn _____. Even sugar's tricky nicknames have nicknames. Grape or apple ___________ has the same effects on your body as its 55 sugary twins. And even though organic evaporated cane juice sounds _______, when you evaporate it, you get sugar! Chemically speaking, it's all the same. And even trickier, when multiple added types of sugars are used in one type of product, they get buried down in a long list of ingredients, so the sugar content might appear to be okay, but when you add them all together, sugar can be the ______ biggest ingredient. Currently, the FDA doesn't suggest a recommended daily limit for sugar, so it's hard to tell if this 65 _____ in a ______ of soda is a little or a lot. But the World Health Organization recommends limiting sugar to just 5% of your total calories, or about 25 grams per day. So, 65 grams is well over twice that amount. But just what is sugar? What's the difference between glucose and fructose? Well, both are _____________ with the same chemical composition of carbon, ________, and oxygen. But they have very different structures and behave quite differently in our bodies. Glucose is the best source of energy for nearly all organisms on Earth. It can be metabolized by all ______ in the body. Fructose, on the other hand, is ___________ primarily in the _____, and when your liver gets overloaded with sweet, sweet fructose, the excess is metabolized to fat. Fresh fruits actually contain fructose, but it's naturally occurring and doesn't cause an overload because the fiber in fruit slows its absorption. This gives your liver the time it needs to do its job. It's sugar that makes cookies _____ and candy _______. It even _____ bread crust a beautiful, golden brown. It's also a great preservative; it doesn't spoil or evaporate, so the foods it's added to are easier to store and ship long distances and tend to be _______. That's why sugar is hiding everywhere. Actually, it might be easier to list the foods that added sugar isn't hiding in, things like: __________, eggs, meats, fish, _____, raw nuts, even your kitchen sink. Simply choosing water over soda, juices, and ______ drinks is a _____ way to _____ ______ added sugar. At the very least, try to pay attention to food labels, so you can keep your sugar intake at a healthy level. Because in this game of hide and seek, every time you don't find added sugar, you win!

Solution

  1. chewy
  2. healthy
  3. metabolized
  4. bologna
  5. avoid
  6. bottle
  7. sugars
  8. cream
  9. single
  10. butter
  11. hidden
  12. sugar
  13. fruit
  14. playing
  15. concentrate
  16. carbohydrates
  17. suspect
  18. pretty
  19. organs
  20. turns
  21. labels
  22. hiding
  23. witness
  24. added
  25. liver
  26. crunchy
  27. cheaper
  28. sports
  29. grams
  30. hydrogen
  31. great
  32. vegetables

Original Text

Sugar is playing hide and seek with you. You'd think it would be pretty easy for you to win, considering all the sugar in sodas, ice cream, candy, and big white bags labeled sugar. People get about half of their added sugars from those drinks and treats, so it might seem like sugar is hiding in plain sight, but like someone in the witness protection program, the other half is hidden in places you'd least suspect. Check the ingredients on ketchup, bologna, spaghetti sauce, soy milk, sports drinks, fish sticks, and peanut butter. You'll find sugar hiding in most of those products. In fact, you'll find added sugars in three-quarters of the more than 600,000 items available in grocery stores. But how is sugar hiding? Can't you just look on food labels? It's not that easy. Just like your friend Robert might go by Bob, Robby, Rob, Bobby, or Roberto, added sugar has a lot of aliases. And by a lot, we don't mean five or six, try fifty-six. There's brown rice syrup, barley malt, demerara, Florida Crystals, muscovado, and, of course, high fructose corn syrup, sometimes called HFCS, or corn sugar. Even sugar's tricky nicknames have nicknames. Grape or apple concentrate has the same effects on your body as its 55 sugary twins. And even though organic evaporated cane juice sounds healthy, when you evaporate it, you get sugar! Chemically speaking, it's all the same. And even trickier, when multiple added types of sugars are used in one type of product, they get buried down in a long list of ingredients, so the sugar content might appear to be okay, but when you add them all together, sugar can be the single biggest ingredient. Currently, the FDA doesn't suggest a recommended daily limit for sugar, so it's hard to tell if this 65 grams in a bottle of soda is a little or a lot. But the World Health Organization recommends limiting sugar to just 5% of your total calories, or about 25 grams per day. So, 65 grams is well over twice that amount. But just what is sugar? What's the difference between glucose and fructose? Well, both are carbohydrates with the same chemical composition of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. But they have very different structures and behave quite differently in our bodies. Glucose is the best source of energy for nearly all organisms on Earth. It can be metabolized by all organs in the body. Fructose, on the other hand, is metabolized primarily in the liver, and when your liver gets overloaded with sweet, sweet fructose, the excess is metabolized to fat. Fresh fruits actually contain fructose, but it's naturally occurring and doesn't cause an overload because the fiber in fruit slows its absorption. This gives your liver the time it needs to do its job. It's sugar that makes cookies chewy and candy crunchy. It even turns bread crust a beautiful, golden brown. It's also a great preservative; it doesn't spoil or evaporate, so the foods it's added to are easier to store and ship long distances and tend to be cheaper. That's why sugar is hiding everywhere. Actually, it might be easier to list the foods that added sugar isn't hiding in, things like: vegetables, eggs, meats, fish, fruit, raw nuts, even your kitchen sink. Simply choosing water over soda, juices, and sports drinks is a great way to avoid hidden added sugar. At the very least, try to pay attention to food labels, so you can keep your sugar intake at a healthy level. Because in this game of hide and seek, every time you don't find added sugar, you win!

Frequently Occurring Word Combinations

ngrams of length 2

collocation frequency
added sugar 3
added sugars 2
find added 2

Important Words

  1. absorption
  2. add
  3. added
  4. aliases
  5. amount
  6. apple
  7. attention
  8. avoid
  9. bags
  10. barley
  11. beautiful
  12. behave
  13. big
  14. biggest
  15. bob
  16. bobby
  17. bodies
  18. body
  19. bologna
  20. bottle
  21. bread
  22. brown
  23. buried
  24. butter
  25. called
  26. calories
  27. candy
  28. cane
  29. carbohydrates
  30. carbon
  31. cheaper
  32. check
  33. chemical
  34. chemically
  35. chewy
  36. choosing
  37. composition
  38. concentrate
  39. content
  40. cookies
  41. corn
  42. cream
  43. crunchy
  44. crust
  45. crystals
  46. daily
  47. day
  48. demerara
  49. difference
  50. differently
  51. distances
  52. drinks
  53. earth
  54. easier
  55. easy
  56. effects
  57. eggs
  58. energy
  59. evaporate
  60. evaporated
  61. excess
  62. fact
  63. fat
  64. fda
  65. fiber
  66. find
  67. fish
  68. florida
  69. food
  70. foods
  71. fresh
  72. friend
  73. fructose
  74. fruit
  75. fruits
  76. game
  77. glucose
  78. golden
  79. grams
  80. grape
  81. great
  82. grocery
  83. hand
  84. hard
  85. health
  86. healthy
  87. hfcs
  88. hidden
  89. hide
  90. hiding
  91. high
  92. hydrogen
  93. ice
  94. ingredient
  95. ingredients
  96. intake
  97. items
  98. job
  99. juice
  100. juices
  101. ketchup
  102. kitchen
  103. labeled
  104. labels
  105. level
  106. limit
  107. limiting
  108. list
  109. liver
  110. long
  111. lot
  112. malt
  113. meats
  114. metabolized
  115. milk
  116. multiple
  117. muscovado
  118. naturally
  119. nicknames
  120. nuts
  121. occurring
  122. organic
  123. organisms
  124. organization
  125. organs
  126. overload
  127. overloaded
  128. oxygen
  129. pay
  130. peanut
  131. people
  132. places
  133. plain
  134. playing
  135. pretty
  136. primarily
  137. product
  138. products
  139. program
  140. protection
  141. raw
  142. recommended
  143. recommends
  144. rice
  145. rob
  146. robby
  147. robert
  148. roberto
  149. sauce
  150. seek
  151. ship
  152. sight
  153. simply
  154. single
  155. sink
  156. slows
  157. soda
  158. sodas
  159. sounds
  160. source
  161. soy
  162. spaghetti
  163. speaking
  164. spoil
  165. sports
  166. sticks
  167. store
  168. stores
  169. structures
  170. sugar
  171. sugars
  172. sugary
  173. suggest
  174. suspect
  175. sweet
  176. syrup
  177. tend
  178. time
  179. total
  180. treats
  181. trickier
  182. tricky
  183. turns
  184. twins
  185. type
  186. types
  187. vegetables
  188. water
  189. white
  190. win
  191. witness
  192. world