full transcript

From the Ted Talk by Camille Seaman: The Arctic vs. the Antarctic

Unscramble the Blue Letters

On our planet, we have two palor regions: the Arctic, whose name comes from the gerek Arktikos, of the ntroh, and the Antarctic from Antarktikos, opposite of the North. But there's an easier way to remember them if you just remember what surrounds them. The Arctic, siuttaed in the nthrroen hemisphere of our planet, is an ocean entirely surrounded by land. On the other side of the world, the Antarctic is a continent entirely surrounded by ocaen. So, the Arctic has polar bears but no penguins, and the Antarctic has penguins but no polar bears. Let's talk about the Arctic first. The artcic region consists of a vast, ice-covered ocean surrounded by treeless permafrost. The area can be defined as the region between the Arctic Circle and the North Pole. If you were to sntad at the North Pole, everywhere you looked, in all directions, would be south. But standing at the North Pole is difficult to do for very long because it's in the middle of an ocean, creoved by constantly shifting, frozen sea ice. If you were to fall into the water at the North Pole, you'd fall into water that's 13,980 feet deep. Above the water, average winter temperatures can be as low as -40 degrees csielus, and the coldest recorded temperature is approximately -68 degrees Celsius. Despite these incredibly harsh conditions, humans have populated areas in the Arctic for thousands of years. Life in the Arctic includes onrgimass living in the ice, zooplankton and phytoplankton, fish and marine mammals, birds, land animals, pnlats, and human siieetcos. Okay, what about Antarctica? Antarctica is Earth's sthumonorest continent, and it contains the geographic South Pole. It's the fifth largest continent on the planet at nearly twice the size of aulstiara. Almost 98% of Anarctica is covered by ice at least one mile in tsnckihes. Conditions in Antarctica are some of the most eremxte in the entire world. On average, it's the coldest, wisdneit, driest continent and has the hhisget average elevation of all the continents. You might think that it swons all the time at the Poles, but Antarctica is so dry, it's considered a desert with aunanl precipitation of only 200 millimeters along the cosat and far less inland. The truaetmpree in Antarctica has reached -89 drgeees Celsius. Because it's so harsh and hard to get to, there are no permanent hmaun residents on Antarctica, but anywhere from 1,000 to 5,000 people reside throughout the year at the research stations scattered across the cnenontit. Even the most extreme animals fight for survival, and only cold-adapted organisms survive there, including many types of algae, animals, bacteria, fungi, plants, and protista. But why is Antarctica colder than its northern cousin? Well, first, much of the continent is more than three kilometers above sea level, and temperature daeseecrs with elevation. That's why mountaintops have snow on them. Second, remember that the Arctic is really a frozen ocean. The water in the ocean beanteh it is warmer than the frozen ground in the Antarctic, and that warmth is tesraefrnrd through the ice pack. This prevents temperatures in the Arctic regions from reaching the extremes typical of the land surface of Antarctica. Third, the seasons are conspiring against the ancarittc. During the aphelion in July, when the Earth is the farthest away from the Sun, it also happens to be winter in the Antarctic, which cetaers a double-whammy of cold for the stoherun pole. But despite being itispabhlone, the North and South Pole are a big reason why our planet is the way it is. Both of our polar regions are very important climate controllers. They help moderate the temperature in our temperate zeons and give us stable weather. As sea ice in the Arctic declines due to climate change and global wmainrg, weather around the globe becomes increasing more unstable.

Open Cloze

On our planet, we have two _____ regions: the Arctic, whose name comes from the _____ Arktikos, of the _____, and the Antarctic from Antarktikos, opposite of the North. But there's an easier way to remember them if you just remember what surrounds them. The Arctic, ________ in the ________ hemisphere of our planet, is an ocean entirely surrounded by land. On the other side of the world, the Antarctic is a continent entirely surrounded by _____. So, the Arctic has polar bears but no penguins, and the Antarctic has penguins but no polar bears. Let's talk about the Arctic first. The ______ region consists of a vast, ice-covered ocean surrounded by treeless permafrost. The area can be defined as the region between the Arctic Circle and the North Pole. If you were to _____ at the North Pole, everywhere you looked, in all directions, would be south. But standing at the North Pole is difficult to do for very long because it's in the middle of an ocean, _______ by constantly shifting, frozen sea ice. If you were to fall into the water at the North Pole, you'd fall into water that's 13,980 feet deep. Above the water, average winter temperatures can be as low as -40 degrees _______, and the coldest recorded temperature is approximately -68 degrees Celsius. Despite these incredibly harsh conditions, humans have populated areas in the Arctic for thousands of years. Life in the Arctic includes _________ living in the ice, zooplankton and phytoplankton, fish and marine mammals, birds, land animals, ______, and human _________. Okay, what about Antarctica? Antarctica is Earth's ____________ continent, and it contains the geographic South Pole. It's the fifth largest continent on the planet at nearly twice the size of _________. Almost 98% of Anarctica is covered by ice at least one mile in _________. Conditions in Antarctica are some of the most _______ in the entire world. On average, it's the coldest, ________, driest continent and has the _______ average elevation of all the continents. You might think that it _____ all the time at the Poles, but Antarctica is so dry, it's considered a desert with ______ precipitation of only 200 millimeters along the _____ and far less inland. The ___________ in Antarctica has reached -89 _______ Celsius. Because it's so harsh and hard to get to, there are no permanent _____ residents on Antarctica, but anywhere from 1,000 to 5,000 people reside throughout the year at the research stations scattered across the _________. Even the most extreme animals fight for survival, and only cold-adapted organisms survive there, including many types of algae, animals, bacteria, fungi, plants, and protista. But why is Antarctica colder than its northern cousin? Well, first, much of the continent is more than three kilometers above sea level, and temperature _________ with elevation. That's why mountaintops have snow on them. Second, remember that the Arctic is really a frozen ocean. The water in the ocean _______ it is warmer than the frozen ground in the Antarctic, and that warmth is ___________ through the ice pack. This prevents temperatures in the Arctic regions from reaching the extremes typical of the land surface of Antarctica. Third, the seasons are conspiring against the _________. During the aphelion in July, when the Earth is the farthest away from the Sun, it also happens to be winter in the Antarctic, which _______ a double-whammy of cold for the ________ pole. But despite being ____________, the North and South Pole are a big reason why our planet is the way it is. Both of our polar regions are very important climate controllers. They help moderate the temperature in our temperate _____ and give us stable weather. As sea ice in the Arctic declines due to climate change and global _______, weather around the globe becomes increasing more unstable.

Solution

  1. beneath
  2. situated
  3. arctic
  4. societies
  5. celsius
  6. polar
  7. warming
  8. covered
  9. thickness
  10. inhospitable
  11. temperature
  12. continent
  13. southernmost
  14. creates
  15. zones
  16. degrees
  17. extreme
  18. ocean
  19. north
  20. snows
  21. highest
  22. southern
  23. australia
  24. decreases
  25. transferred
  26. organisms
  27. northern
  28. stand
  29. greek
  30. human
  31. plants
  32. antarctic
  33. annual
  34. coast
  35. windiest

Original Text

On our planet, we have two polar regions: the Arctic, whose name comes from the Greek Arktikos, of the North, and the Antarctic from Antarktikos, opposite of the North. But there's an easier way to remember them if you just remember what surrounds them. The Arctic, situated in the Northern hemisphere of our planet, is an ocean entirely surrounded by land. On the other side of the world, the Antarctic is a continent entirely surrounded by ocean. So, the Arctic has polar bears but no penguins, and the Antarctic has penguins but no polar bears. Let's talk about the Arctic first. The Arctic region consists of a vast, ice-covered ocean surrounded by treeless permafrost. The area can be defined as the region between the Arctic Circle and the North Pole. If you were to stand at the North Pole, everywhere you looked, in all directions, would be south. But standing at the North Pole is difficult to do for very long because it's in the middle of an ocean, covered by constantly shifting, frozen sea ice. If you were to fall into the water at the North Pole, you'd fall into water that's 13,980 feet deep. Above the water, average winter temperatures can be as low as -40 degrees Celsius, and the coldest recorded temperature is approximately -68 degrees Celsius. Despite these incredibly harsh conditions, humans have populated areas in the Arctic for thousands of years. Life in the Arctic includes organisms living in the ice, zooplankton and phytoplankton, fish and marine mammals, birds, land animals, plants, and human societies. Okay, what about Antarctica? Antarctica is Earth's southernmost continent, and it contains the geographic South Pole. It's the fifth largest continent on the planet at nearly twice the size of Australia. Almost 98% of Anarctica is covered by ice at least one mile in thickness. Conditions in Antarctica are some of the most extreme in the entire world. On average, it's the coldest, windiest, driest continent and has the highest average elevation of all the continents. You might think that it snows all the time at the Poles, but Antarctica is so dry, it's considered a desert with annual precipitation of only 200 millimeters along the coast and far less inland. The temperature in Antarctica has reached -89 degrees Celsius. Because it's so harsh and hard to get to, there are no permanent human residents on Antarctica, but anywhere from 1,000 to 5,000 people reside throughout the year at the research stations scattered across the continent. Even the most extreme animals fight for survival, and only cold-adapted organisms survive there, including many types of algae, animals, bacteria, fungi, plants, and protista. But why is Antarctica colder than its northern cousin? Well, first, much of the continent is more than three kilometers above sea level, and temperature decreases with elevation. That's why mountaintops have snow on them. Second, remember that the Arctic is really a frozen ocean. The water in the ocean beneath it is warmer than the frozen ground in the Antarctic, and that warmth is transferred through the ice pack. This prevents temperatures in the Arctic regions from reaching the extremes typical of the land surface of Antarctica. Third, the seasons are conspiring against the Antarctic. During the aphelion in July, when the Earth is the farthest away from the Sun, it also happens to be winter in the Antarctic, which creates a double-whammy of cold for the southern pole. But despite being inhospitable, the North and South Pole are a big reason why our planet is the way it is. Both of our polar regions are very important climate controllers. They help moderate the temperature in our temperate zones and give us stable weather. As sea ice in the Arctic declines due to climate change and global warming, weather around the globe becomes increasing more unstable.

Frequently Occurring Word Combinations

ngrams of length 2

collocation frequency
polar bears 2
north pole 2
sea ice 2
degrees celsius 2
south pole 2

Important Words

  1. algae
  2. anarctica
  3. animals
  4. annual
  5. antarctic
  6. antarctica
  7. antarktikos
  8. aphelion
  9. approximately
  10. arctic
  11. area
  12. areas
  13. arktikos
  14. australia
  15. average
  16. bacteria
  17. bears
  18. beneath
  19. big
  20. birds
  21. celsius
  22. change
  23. circle
  24. climate
  25. coast
  26. cold
  27. colder
  28. coldest
  29. conditions
  30. considered
  31. consists
  32. conspiring
  33. constantly
  34. continent
  35. continents
  36. controllers
  37. cousin
  38. covered
  39. creates
  40. declines
  41. decreases
  42. deep
  43. defined
  44. degrees
  45. desert
  46. difficult
  47. directions
  48. driest
  49. dry
  50. due
  51. earth
  52. easier
  53. elevation
  54. entire
  55. extreme
  56. extremes
  57. fall
  58. farthest
  59. feet
  60. fight
  61. fish
  62. frozen
  63. fungi
  64. geographic
  65. give
  66. global
  67. globe
  68. greek
  69. ground
  70. hard
  71. harsh
  72. hemisphere
  73. highest
  74. human
  75. humans
  76. ice
  77. important
  78. includes
  79. including
  80. increasing
  81. incredibly
  82. inhospitable
  83. inland
  84. july
  85. kilometers
  86. land
  87. largest
  88. level
  89. life
  90. living
  91. long
  92. looked
  93. mammals
  94. marine
  95. middle
  96. mile
  97. millimeters
  98. moderate
  99. mountaintops
  100. north
  101. northern
  102. ocean
  103. organisms
  104. pack
  105. penguins
  106. people
  107. permafrost
  108. permanent
  109. phytoplankton
  110. planet
  111. plants
  112. polar
  113. pole
  114. poles
  115. populated
  116. precipitation
  117. prevents
  118. protista
  119. reached
  120. reaching
  121. reason
  122. recorded
  123. region
  124. regions
  125. remember
  126. research
  127. reside
  128. residents
  129. scattered
  130. sea
  131. seasons
  132. shifting
  133. side
  134. situated
  135. size
  136. snow
  137. snows
  138. societies
  139. south
  140. southern
  141. southernmost
  142. stable
  143. stand
  144. standing
  145. stations
  146. sun
  147. surface
  148. surrounded
  149. surrounds
  150. survival
  151. survive
  152. talk
  153. temperate
  154. temperature
  155. temperatures
  156. thickness
  157. thousands
  158. time
  159. transferred
  160. treeless
  161. types
  162. typical
  163. unstable
  164. vast
  165. warmer
  166. warming
  167. warmth
  168. water
  169. weather
  170. windiest
  171. winter
  172. world
  173. year
  174. years
  175. zones
  176. zooplankton