full transcript

From the Ted Talk by Christoph Keplinger: The artificial muscles that will power robots of the future

Unscramble the Blue Letters

So how do HASEL artificial muscles work? You might be surprised. They're based on very inexpensive, easily available materials. You can even try, and I recommend it, the main principle at home. Take a few Ziploc bags and fill them with olive oil. Try to push out air bubbles as much as you can. Now take a glass plate and place it on one side of the bag. When you press down, you see the bag contract. Now the amount of contraction is easy to ctornol. When you take a small weight, you get a small cnaocottirn. With a meudim weight, we get a medium contraction. And with a large weight, you get a large contraction. Now for HASELs, the only change is to replace the force of your hand or the weight with an electrical froce. hsael stands for "hydraulically amplified self-healing electrostatic actuators." Here you see a geometry called Peano-HASEL actuators, one of many possible designs. Again, you take a flexible plmyoer such as our Ziploc bag, you fill it with an insulating liquid, such as olive oil, and now, instead of the glass plate, you place an ecrtliecal conductor on one side of the pocuh. To cretae something that looks more like a muscle fiber, you can connect a few pouches together and attached a whgiet on one side. Next, we apply voltage. Now, the eictelrc field starts acting on the liquid. It displaces the liquid, and it forces the muscle to caotncrt. Here you see a ceetplomd Peano-HASEL actatour and how it enpaxds and contracts when voltage is applied. veewid from the side, you can really see those pouches take a more cinilrdyacl shape, such as we saw with the Ziploc bags. We can also place a few such muclse fibers next to each other to create something that looks even more like a muscle that also contracts and expands in cross section. These HASELs here are lfnitig a weight that's about 200 times heavier than their own weight. Here you see one of our newest designs, called quadrant donut haelss and how they expand and contract. They can be operated incredibly fast, reaching superhuman speeds. They are even powerful enough to jump off the ground.

Open Cloze

So how do HASEL artificial muscles work? You might be surprised. They're based on very inexpensive, easily available materials. You can even try, and I recommend it, the main principle at home. Take a few Ziploc bags and fill them with olive oil. Try to push out air bubbles as much as you can. Now take a glass plate and place it on one side of the bag. When you press down, you see the bag contract. Now the amount of contraction is easy to _______. When you take a small weight, you get a small ___________. With a ______ weight, we get a medium contraction. And with a large weight, you get a large contraction. Now for HASELs, the only change is to replace the force of your hand or the weight with an electrical _____. _____ stands for "hydraulically amplified self-healing electrostatic actuators." Here you see a geometry called Peano-HASEL actuators, one of many possible designs. Again, you take a flexible _______ such as our Ziploc bag, you fill it with an insulating liquid, such as olive oil, and now, instead of the glass plate, you place an __________ conductor on one side of the _____. To ______ something that looks more like a muscle fiber, you can connect a few pouches together and attached a ______ on one side. Next, we apply voltage. Now, the ________ field starts acting on the liquid. It displaces the liquid, and it forces the muscle to ________. Here you see a _________ Peano-HASEL ________ and how it _______ and contracts when voltage is applied. ______ from the side, you can really see those pouches take a more ___________ shape, such as we saw with the Ziploc bags. We can also place a few such ______ fibers next to each other to create something that looks even more like a muscle that also contracts and expands in cross section. These HASELs here are _______ a weight that's about 200 times heavier than their own weight. Here you see one of our newest designs, called quadrant donut ______ and how they expand and contract. They can be operated incredibly fast, reaching superhuman speeds. They are even powerful enough to jump off the ground.

Solution

  1. completed
  2. create
  3. hasels
  4. contract
  5. contraction
  6. weight
  7. control
  8. hasel
  9. pouch
  10. muscle
  11. cylindrical
  12. actuator
  13. lifting
  14. viewed
  15. force
  16. electrical
  17. electric
  18. medium
  19. expands
  20. polymer

Original Text

So how do HASEL artificial muscles work? You might be surprised. They're based on very inexpensive, easily available materials. You can even try, and I recommend it, the main principle at home. Take a few Ziploc bags and fill them with olive oil. Try to push out air bubbles as much as you can. Now take a glass plate and place it on one side of the bag. When you press down, you see the bag contract. Now the amount of contraction is easy to control. When you take a small weight, you get a small contraction. With a medium weight, we get a medium contraction. And with a large weight, you get a large contraction. Now for HASELs, the only change is to replace the force of your hand or the weight with an electrical force. HASEL stands for "hydraulically amplified self-healing electrostatic actuators." Here you see a geometry called Peano-HASEL actuators, one of many possible designs. Again, you take a flexible polymer such as our Ziploc bag, you fill it with an insulating liquid, such as olive oil, and now, instead of the glass plate, you place an electrical conductor on one side of the pouch. To create something that looks more like a muscle fiber, you can connect a few pouches together and attached a weight on one side. Next, we apply voltage. Now, the electric field starts acting on the liquid. It displaces the liquid, and it forces the muscle to contract. Here you see a completed Peano-HASEL actuator and how it expands and contracts when voltage is applied. Viewed from the side, you can really see those pouches take a more cylindrical shape, such as we saw with the Ziploc bags. We can also place a few such muscle fibers next to each other to create something that looks even more like a muscle that also contracts and expands in cross section. These HASELs here are lifting a weight that's about 200 times heavier than their own weight. Here you see one of our newest designs, called quadrant donut HASELs and how they expand and contract. They can be operated incredibly fast, reaching superhuman speeds. They are even powerful enough to jump off the ground.

Frequently Occurring Word Combinations

ngrams of length 2

collocation frequency
artificial muscles 5
biological muscle 4
hasel artificial 4
traditional rigid 3
soft robotics 3
build robots 2
rigid electric 2
electric motors 2
key idea 2
astonishing capabilities 2
build soft 2
plastic frame 2
maxwell stress 2
ziploc bags 2

ngrams of length 3

collocation frequency
hasel artificial muscles 4
traditional rigid electric 2
rigid electric motors 2

ngrams of length 4

collocation frequency
traditional rigid electric motors 2

Important Words

  1. acting
  2. actuator
  3. actuators
  4. air
  5. amount
  6. amplified
  7. applied
  8. apply
  9. artificial
  10. attached
  11. bag
  12. bags
  13. based
  14. bubbles
  15. called
  16. change
  17. completed
  18. conductor
  19. connect
  20. contract
  21. contraction
  22. contracts
  23. control
  24. create
  25. cross
  26. cylindrical
  27. designs
  28. displaces
  29. donut
  30. easily
  31. easy
  32. electric
  33. electrical
  34. electrostatic
  35. expand
  36. expands
  37. fast
  38. fiber
  39. fibers
  40. field
  41. fill
  42. flexible
  43. force
  44. forces
  45. geometry
  46. glass
  47. ground
  48. hand
  49. hasel
  50. hasels
  51. heavier
  52. home
  53. incredibly
  54. inexpensive
  55. insulating
  56. jump
  57. large
  58. lifting
  59. liquid
  60. main
  61. materials
  62. medium
  63. muscle
  64. muscles
  65. newest
  66. oil
  67. olive
  68. operated
  69. place
  70. plate
  71. polymer
  72. pouch
  73. pouches
  74. powerful
  75. press
  76. principle
  77. push
  78. quadrant
  79. reaching
  80. recommend
  81. replace
  82. section
  83. shape
  84. side
  85. small
  86. speeds
  87. stands
  88. starts
  89. superhuman
  90. surprised
  91. times
  92. viewed
  93. voltage
  94. weight
  95. work
  96. ziploc