full transcript
"From the Ted Talk by George Dyson: The birth of the computer"

#### Unscramble the Blue Letters

He built this machine, and we had a beautiful demonstration of how this thing really wkors, with these little bits. And it's an idea that goes way back. The first person to really explain that was Thomas Hobbes, who, in 1651, explained how arithmetic and logic are the same thing, and if you want to do artificial tiniknhg and artificial logic, you can do it all with arithmetic. He said you neeedd addition and subtraction. Leibniz, who came a little bit later â this is 1679 â showed that you didn't even need subtraction. You could do the whole thing with addition. Here, we have all the binray arithmetic and logic that drove the ctpuemor revolution. And Leibniz was the first peosrn to really talk about building such a machine. He tekald about doing it with marbles, having gates and what we now call shift registers, where you shift the gates, drop the marbles down the tarkcs. And that's what all these machines are doing, except, instead of doing it with marbles, they're doing it with electrons.

#### Open Cloze

He built this machine, and we had a beautiful demonstration of how this thing really **_____**, with these little bits. And it's an idea that goes way back. The first person to really explain that was Thomas Hobbes, who, in 1651, explained how arithmetic and logic are the same thing, and if you want to do artificial **________** and artificial logic, you can do it all with arithmetic. He said you **______** addition and subtraction. Leibniz, who came a little bit later â this is 1679 â showed that you didn't even need subtraction. You could do the whole thing with addition. Here, we have all the **______** arithmetic and logic that drove the **________** revolution. And Leibniz was the first **______** to really talk about building such a machine. He **______** about doing it with marbles, having gates and what we now call shift registers, where you shift the gates, drop the marbles down the **______**. And that's what all these machines are doing, except, instead of doing it with marbles, they're doing it with electrons.

#### Solution

- computer
- works
- binary
- tracks
- person
- thinking
- talked
- needed

#### Original Text

He built this machine, and we had a beautiful demonstration of how this thing really works, with these little bits. And it's an idea that goes way back. The first person to really explain that was Thomas Hobbes, who, in 1651, explained how arithmetic and logic are the same thing, and if you want to do artificial thinking and artificial logic, you can do it all with arithmetic. He said you needed addition and subtraction. Leibniz, who came a little bit later â this is 1679 â showed that you didn't even need subtraction. You could do the whole thing with addition. Here, we have all the binary arithmetic and logic that drove the computer revolution. And Leibniz was the first person to really talk about building such a machine. He talked about doing it with marbles, having gates and what we now call shift registers, where you shift the gates, drop the marbles down the tracks. And that's what all these machines are doing, except, instead of doing it with marbles, they're doing it with electrons.
#### ngrams of length 2

collocation |
frequency |

von neumann |
12 |

vacuum tubes |
4 |

julian bigelow |
3 |

#### Important Words

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- arithmetic
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- subtraction
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