full transcript
"From the Ted Talk by George Dyson: The birth of the computer"

#### Unscramble the Blue Letters

He built this machine, and we had a beautiful demonstration of how this thing really works, with these little bits. And it's an idea that goes way back. The first poersn to really explain that was Thomas Hobbes, who, in 1651, eaxipelnd how arithmetic and logic are the same thing, and if you want to do artificial tknniihg and artificial logic, you can do it all with arithmetic. He said you nedeed addition and subtraction. Leibniz, who came a little bit later — this is 1679 — showed that you didn't even need subtraction. You could do the whole thing with addition. Here, we have all the binary arithmetic and logic that drove the computer revolution. And Leibniz was the first person to really talk about building such a machine. He talked about doing it with meblars, having gteas and what we now call shift registers, where you shift the gates, drop the marbles down the tcakrs. And that's what all these mehcanis are doing, except, instead of doing it with marbles, they're doing it with electrons.

#### Open Cloze

He built this machine, and we had a beautiful demonstration of how this thing really works, with these little bits. And it's an idea that goes way back. The first **______** to really explain that was Thomas Hobbes, who, in 1651, **_________** how arithmetic and logic are the same thing, and if you want to do artificial **________** and artificial logic, you can do it all with arithmetic. He said you **______** addition and subtraction. Leibniz, who came a little bit later — this is 1679 — showed that you didn't even need subtraction. You could do the whole thing with addition. Here, we have all the binary arithmetic and logic that drove the computer revolution. And Leibniz was the first person to really talk about building such a machine. He talked about doing it with **_______**, having **_____** and what we now call shift registers, where you shift the gates, drop the marbles down the **______**. And that's what all these **________** are doing, except, instead of doing it with marbles, they're doing it with electrons.

#### Solution

- person
- tracks
- marbles
- machines
- explained
- thinking
- gates
- needed

#### Original Text

He built this machine, and we had a beautiful demonstration of how this thing really works, with these little bits. And it's an idea that goes way back. The first person to really explain that was Thomas Hobbes, who, in 1651, explained how arithmetic and logic are the same thing, and if you want to do artificial thinking and artificial logic, you can do it all with arithmetic. He said you needed addition and subtraction. Leibniz, who came a little bit later — this is 1679 — showed that you didn't even need subtraction. You could do the whole thing with addition. Here, we have all the binary arithmetic and logic that drove the computer revolution. And Leibniz was the first person to really talk about building such a machine. He talked about doing it with marbles, having gates and what we now call shift registers, where you shift the gates, drop the marbles down the tracks. And that's what all these machines are doing, except, instead of doing it with marbles, they're doing it with electrons.
#### ngrams of length 2

collocation |
frequency |

von neumann |
12 |

vacuum tubes |
4 |

julian bigelow |
3 |

#### Important Words

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- arithmetic
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