full transcript
"From the Ted Talk by Greg Gage: The cockroach beatbox"

Unscramble the Blue Letters

When you think about the brain, it's difficult to undartensd, because if I were to ask you right now, how does the heart work, you would instantly tell me it's a pump. It pmpus blood. If I were to ask about your lungs, you would say it exchanges oxygen for carbon dioxide. That's easy. If I were to ask you how the brain works, it's hard to understand because you can't just look at a brain and understand what it is. It's not a mechanical object, not a pump, not an airbag. It's just like, if you held it in your hand when it was dead, it's just a piece of fat. To understand how the brain wkros, you have to go inside a living brain. Because the brain's not mechanical, the brain is electrical and it's chemical. Your brain is made out of 100 bloiiln cells, called neurons. And these neurons caimumnocte with each other with electricity. And we're going to eavesdrop in on a conversation between two cells, and we're going to listen to something called a spike. But we're not going to record my brain or your brain or your teachers' brains, we're going to use our good friend the ckarococh. Not just because I think they're cool, but because they have brains very smliair to ours. So if you learn a little bit about how their brains work, we're going to laren a lot about how our brains work. I'm going to put them in some ice water here And then — Audience: Ew! Greg Gabe: Yeah ... Right now they're becoming azeeietnhtsd. Because they're cold blooded, they become the temperature of the water and they can't control it so they just basically "chillax," right? They're not going to feel anything, which may tell you a little about what we're going to do, a scientific experiment to understand the brain. So ... This is the leg of a cockroach. And a cockroach has all these bfuuaetil hairs and pricklies all over it. Underneath each one of those is a cell, and this cell's a nuroen that is going to send information about wind or vibration. If you ever try to catch a cockroach, it's hard because they can feel you coming before you're even there, they start running. These clels are ziipnpg up this information up to the brain using those little anoxs with ecetnriolc messages in there. We're going to record by sticking a pin right in there. We need to take off the leg of a cockroach — don't wrory, they'll grow back — then we're going to put two pins in there. These are mtael pins. One will pick up this electronic message, this electric message is going by. So, we're now going to do the srruegy, let's see if you guys can see this. Yeah, it's gross ... All right. So there we go. You guys can see his leg right there. Now I'm going to take this leg, I'm going to put it in this invention that we came up with called the Spikerbox — and this rleceaps lots of expensive equipment in a reracseh lab, so you guys can do this in your own high schools, or in your own basements if it's me. (Audience: Laughter) So, there. Can you guys see that? Alright, so I'm going to go ahead and turn this on. I'm going to plug it in. (Tuning sound) To me, this is the most beautiful sound in the world. This is what your brain is doing right now. You have 100 billion cells mnakig these raindrop-type noises. Let's take a look at what it looks like, let's pull it up on the iPad sercen. I plugged my iPad into here as well. So reembemr we said the axon looks like a skpie. So we're going to take a look at what one of them looks like in just a brief second. We're going to tap here, so we can sort of average this guy. So there we see it. That's an action ptiaoentl. You've got 100 billion cells in your brain doing this right now, sending all this information back about what you're seeing, hearing. We also said this is a cell that's going to be taking up information about vibrations in the wind. So what if we do an experiment? We can actually blow on this and hear if we see a change. Are you guys going to be ready? If I blow on it you tell me if you hear anything. (Blowing) (suond changes) Let me just touch this with a little pen here. (Noise) That was the neural firing rate. That actually took a while in nucrsncoieee to understand this. This is called rate coding: the harder you press on something, the more spikes there are, and all that information is coming up to your biarn. That's how you perceive things. So that's one way of doing an eenprmiext with ectiiltercy. The other way is that your brain is not only taking in electrical impulses, you're also sending out. That's how you move your muscles around. Let's see what happens if I've pgleugd in something that's electric into the cockroach leg here. I'm going to take two pins, I'm going to plug them onto the cockroach. I'm going to take the other end, I'm going to plug in into my iPod. It's my iPhone actually. Do you guys know how your earbuds work in your ears? You have a battery in your pnhoe, or iPod, right? It's sndineg eaecirctll current into these magnets in your earbuds which shake back and forth and allow you to hear things. But that current's the same cncerury that our brain uses, so we can send that to our cockroach leg and hopefully if this works, we can actually see what happens when we play msuic into the cockroach. Let's take a look. (Music beat) Can we turn it up? There we go. (adnicuee reacts and gasps) GG: So what's happening? Audience: Wow! (Laughter) So you see what's moving. It's mnviog on the bass. All those audiophiles out there, if you have awesome, kicking car stereos, you know, the bass speakers are the biggest speakers. The bgisget speakers have the lesngot waves, which have the most current, and the cnrruet is what's causing these things to move. So it's not just speakers that are causing electricity. miopnoehrcs also cause electricity. (Beat) So I'm going to go ahead and invite another person out on the stage here to help me out with this. So there we go. (Beatboxing) This is the first time this has ever hpaeenpd in the histroy of mankind. Human beatbox to a cockroach leg. When you guys go back to your high school, think about neuroscience and how you guys can begin the neuro-revolution. Thank you very much. Bye bye. (Applause)

Open Cloze

When you think about the brain, it's difficult to __________, because if I were to ask you right now, how does the heart work, you would instantly tell me it's a pump. It _____ blood. If I were to ask about your lungs, you would say it exchanges oxygen for carbon dioxide. That's easy. If I were to ask you how the brain works, it's hard to understand because you can't just look at a brain and understand what it is. It's not a mechanical object, not a pump, not an airbag. It's just like, if you held it in your hand when it was dead, it's just a piece of fat. To understand how the brain _____, you have to go inside a living brain. Because the brain's not mechanical, the brain is electrical and it's chemical. Your brain is made out of 100 _______ cells, called neurons. And these neurons ___________ with each other with electricity. And we're going to eavesdrop in on a conversation between two cells, and we're going to listen to something called a spike. But we're not going to record my brain or your brain or your teachers' brains, we're going to use our good friend the _________. Not just because I think they're cool, but because they have brains very _______ to ours. So if you learn a little bit about how their brains work, we're going to _____ a lot about how our brains work. I'm going to put them in some ice water here And then — Audience: Ew! Greg Gabe: Yeah ... Right now they're becoming ____________. Because they're cold blooded, they become the temperature of the water and they can't control it so they just basically "chillax," right? They're not going to feel anything, which may tell you a little about what we're going to do, a scientific experiment to understand the brain. So ... This is the leg of a cockroach. And a cockroach has all these _________ hairs and pricklies all over it. Underneath each one of those is a cell, and this cell's a ______ that is going to send information about wind or vibration. If you ever try to catch a cockroach, it's hard because they can feel you coming before you're even there, they start running. These _____ are _______ up this information up to the brain using those little _____ with __________ messages in there. We're going to record by sticking a pin right in there. We need to take off the leg of a cockroach — don't _____, they'll grow back — then we're going to put two pins in there. These are _____ pins. One will pick up this electronic message, this electric message is going by. So, we're now going to do the _______, let's see if you guys can see this. Yeah, it's gross ... All right. So there we go. You guys can see his leg right there. Now I'm going to take this leg, I'm going to put it in this invention that we came up with called the Spikerbox — and this ________ lots of expensive equipment in a ________ lab, so you guys can do this in your own high schools, or in your own basements if it's me. (Audience: Laughter) So, there. Can you guys see that? Alright, so I'm going to go ahead and turn this on. I'm going to plug it in. (Tuning sound) To me, this is the most beautiful sound in the world. This is what your brain is doing right now. You have 100 billion cells ______ these raindrop-type noises. Let's take a look at what it looks like, let's pull it up on the iPad ______. I plugged my iPad into here as well. So ________ we said the axon looks like a _____. So we're going to take a look at what one of them looks like in just a brief second. We're going to tap here, so we can sort of average this guy. So there we see it. That's an action _________. You've got 100 billion cells in your brain doing this right now, sending all this information back about what you're seeing, hearing. We also said this is a cell that's going to be taking up information about vibrations in the wind. So what if we do an experiment? We can actually blow on this and hear if we see a change. Are you guys going to be ready? If I blow on it you tell me if you hear anything. (Blowing) (_____ changes) Let me just touch this with a little pen here. (Noise) That was the neural firing rate. That actually took a while in ____________ to understand this. This is called rate coding: the harder you press on something, the more spikes there are, and all that information is coming up to your _____. That's how you perceive things. So that's one way of doing an __________ with ___________. The other way is that your brain is not only taking in electrical impulses, you're also sending out. That's how you move your muscles around. Let's see what happens if I've _______ in something that's electric into the cockroach leg here. I'm going to take two pins, I'm going to plug them onto the cockroach. I'm going to take the other end, I'm going to plug in into my iPod. It's my iPhone actually. Do you guys know how your earbuds work in your ears? You have a battery in your _____, or iPod, right? It's _______ __________ current into these magnets in your earbuds which shake back and forth and allow you to hear things. But that current's the same ________ that our brain uses, so we can send that to our cockroach leg and hopefully if this works, we can actually see what happens when we play _____ into the cockroach. Let's take a look. (Music beat) Can we turn it up? There we go. (________ reacts and gasps) GG: So what's happening? Audience: Wow! (Laughter) So you see what's moving. It's ______ on the bass. All those audiophiles out there, if you have awesome, kicking car stereos, you know, the bass speakers are the biggest speakers. The _______ speakers have the _______ waves, which have the most current, and the _______ is what's causing these things to move. So it's not just speakers that are causing electricity. ___________ also cause electricity. (Beat) So I'm going to go ahead and invite another person out on the stage here to help me out with this. So there we go. (Beatboxing) This is the first time this has ever ________ in the _______ of mankind. Human beatbox to a cockroach leg. When you guys go back to your high school, think about neuroscience and how you guys can begin the neuro-revolution. Thank you very much. Bye bye. (Applause)

Solution

  1. microphones
  2. neuron
  3. remember
  4. biggest
  5. neuroscience
  6. currency
  7. audience
  8. similar
  9. cockroach
  10. anesthetized
  11. works
  12. metal
  13. happened
  14. electrical
  15. communicate
  16. moving
  17. history
  18. understand
  19. surgery
  20. axons
  21. sending
  22. research
  23. cells
  24. pumps
  25. beautiful
  26. potential
  27. phone
  28. replaces
  29. electricity
  30. sound
  31. experiment
  32. longest
  33. electronic
  34. music
  35. worry
  36. learn
  37. current
  38. making
  39. billion
  40. plugged
  41. spike
  42. screen
  43. brain
  44. zipping

Original Text

When you think about the brain, it's difficult to understand, because if I were to ask you right now, how does the heart work, you would instantly tell me it's a pump. It pumps blood. If I were to ask about your lungs, you would say it exchanges oxygen for carbon dioxide. That's easy. If I were to ask you how the brain works, it's hard to understand because you can't just look at a brain and understand what it is. It's not a mechanical object, not a pump, not an airbag. It's just like, if you held it in your hand when it was dead, it's just a piece of fat. To understand how the brain works, you have to go inside a living brain. Because the brain's not mechanical, the brain is electrical and it's chemical. Your brain is made out of 100 billion cells, called neurons. And these neurons communicate with each other with electricity. And we're going to eavesdrop in on a conversation between two cells, and we're going to listen to something called a spike. But we're not going to record my brain or your brain or your teachers' brains, we're going to use our good friend the cockroach. Not just because I think they're cool, but because they have brains very similar to ours. So if you learn a little bit about how their brains work, we're going to learn a lot about how our brains work. I'm going to put them in some ice water here And then — Audience: Ew! Greg Gabe: Yeah ... Right now they're becoming anesthetized. Because they're cold blooded, they become the temperature of the water and they can't control it so they just basically "chillax," right? They're not going to feel anything, which may tell you a little about what we're going to do, a scientific experiment to understand the brain. So ... This is the leg of a cockroach. And a cockroach has all these beautiful hairs and pricklies all over it. Underneath each one of those is a cell, and this cell's a neuron that is going to send information about wind or vibration. If you ever try to catch a cockroach, it's hard because they can feel you coming before you're even there, they start running. These cells are zipping up this information up to the brain using those little axons with electronic messages in there. We're going to record by sticking a pin right in there. We need to take off the leg of a cockroach — don't worry, they'll grow back — then we're going to put two pins in there. These are metal pins. One will pick up this electronic message, this electric message is going by. So, we're now going to do the surgery, let's see if you guys can see this. Yeah, it's gross ... All right. So there we go. You guys can see his leg right there. Now I'm going to take this leg, I'm going to put it in this invention that we came up with called the Spikerbox — and this replaces lots of expensive equipment in a research lab, so you guys can do this in your own high schools, or in your own basements if it's me. (Audience: Laughter) So, there. Can you guys see that? Alright, so I'm going to go ahead and turn this on. I'm going to plug it in. (Tuning sound) To me, this is the most beautiful sound in the world. This is what your brain is doing right now. You have 100 billion cells making these raindrop-type noises. Let's take a look at what it looks like, let's pull it up on the iPad screen. I plugged my iPad into here as well. So remember we said the axon looks like a spike. So we're going to take a look at what one of them looks like in just a brief second. We're going to tap here, so we can sort of average this guy. So there we see it. That's an action potential. You've got 100 billion cells in your brain doing this right now, sending all this information back about what you're seeing, hearing. We also said this is a cell that's going to be taking up information about vibrations in the wind. So what if we do an experiment? We can actually blow on this and hear if we see a change. Are you guys going to be ready? If I blow on it you tell me if you hear anything. (Blowing) (Sound changes) Let me just touch this with a little pen here. (Noise) That was the neural firing rate. That actually took a while in neuroscience to understand this. This is called rate coding: the harder you press on something, the more spikes there are, and all that information is coming up to your brain. That's how you perceive things. So that's one way of doing an experiment with electricity. The other way is that your brain is not only taking in electrical impulses, you're also sending out. That's how you move your muscles around. Let's see what happens if I've plugged in something that's electric into the cockroach leg here. I'm going to take two pins, I'm going to plug them onto the cockroach. I'm going to take the other end, I'm going to plug in into my iPod. It's my iPhone actually. Do you guys know how your earbuds work in your ears? You have a battery in your phone, or iPod, right? It's sending electrical current into these magnets in your earbuds which shake back and forth and allow you to hear things. But that current's the same currency that our brain uses, so we can send that to our cockroach leg and hopefully if this works, we can actually see what happens when we play music into the cockroach. Let's take a look. (Music beat) Can we turn it up? There we go. (Audience reacts and gasps) GG: So what's happening? Audience: Wow! (Laughter) So you see what's moving. It's moving on the bass. All those audiophiles out there, if you have awesome, kicking car stereos, you know, the bass speakers are the biggest speakers. The biggest speakers have the longest waves, which have the most current, and the current is what's causing these things to move. So it's not just speakers that are causing electricity. Microphones also cause electricity. (Beat) So I'm going to go ahead and invite another person out on the stage here to help me out with this. So there we go. (Beatboxing) This is the first time this has ever happened in the history of mankind. Human beatbox to a cockroach leg. When you guys go back to your high school, think about neuroscience and how you guys can begin the neuro-revolution. Thank you very much. Bye bye. (Applause)

ngrams of length 2

collocation frequency
billion cells 3
cockroach leg 3

Important Words

  1. action
  2. airbag
  3. alright
  4. anesthetized
  5. applause
  6. audience
  7. audiophiles
  8. average
  9. awesome
  10. axon
  11. axons
  12. basements
  13. basically
  14. bass
  15. battery
  16. beat
  17. beatbox
  18. beatboxing
  19. beautiful
  20. biggest
  21. billion
  22. bit
  23. blood
  24. blooded
  25. blow
  26. blowing
  27. brain
  28. brains
  29. bye
  30. called
  31. car
  32. carbon
  33. catch
  34. causing
  35. cell
  36. cells
  37. change
  38. chemical
  39. cockroach
  40. cold
  41. coming
  42. communicate
  43. control
  44. conversation
  45. cool
  46. currency
  47. current
  48. dead
  49. difficult
  50. dioxide
  51. earbuds
  52. ears
  53. easy
  54. eavesdrop
  55. electric
  56. electrical
  57. electricity
  58. electronic
  59. equipment
  60. exchanges
  61. expensive
  62. experiment
  63. fat
  64. feel
  65. firing
  66. friend
  67. gasps
  68. good
  69. greg
  70. gross
  71. grow
  72. guy
  73. guys
  74. hairs
  75. hand
  76. happened
  77. happening
  78. hard
  79. harder
  80. hear
  81. hearing
  82. heart
  83. held
  84. high
  85. history
  86. human
  87. ice
  88. impulses
  89. information
  90. instantly
  91. invention
  92. invite
  93. ipad
  94. iphone
  95. ipod
  96. kicking
  97. lab
  98. laughter
  99. learn
  100. leg
  101. listen
  102. living
  103. longest
  104. lot
  105. lots
  106. lungs
  107. magnets
  108. making
  109. mankind
  110. mechanical
  111. message
  112. messages
  113. metal
  114. microphones
  115. move
  116. moving
  117. muscles
  118. music
  119. neural
  120. neuron
  121. neurons
  122. neuroscience
  123. noise
  124. noises
  125. object
  126. oxygen
  127. pen
  128. perceive
  129. person
  130. phone
  131. pick
  132. piece
  133. pin
  134. pins
  135. play
  136. plug
  137. plugged
  138. potential
  139. press
  140. pricklies
  141. pull
  142. pump
  143. pumps
  144. put
  145. rate
  146. reacts
  147. ready
  148. record
  149. remember
  150. replaces
  151. research
  152. running
  153. school
  154. schools
  155. scientific
  156. screen
  157. send
  158. sending
  159. shake
  160. similar
  161. sort
  162. sound
  163. speakers
  164. spike
  165. spikerbox
  166. spikes
  167. stage
  168. start
  169. stereos
  170. sticking
  171. surgery
  172. tap
  173. temperature
  174. time
  175. touch
  176. tuning
  177. turn
  178. understand
  179. vibration
  180. vibrations
  181. water
  182. waves
  183. wind
  184. work
  185. works
  186. world
  187. worry
  188. yeah
  189. zipping