full transcript

From the Ted Talk by Edsel SalvaƱa: The dangerous evolution of HIV

Unscramble the Blue Letters

To appreciate the pnrouofd way in which HIV tranrmsfos itself every time it rdpruocees, let's make a genetic cspmaorion. If we look at the DNA variation among humans of different races from different continents, the actual DNA dncffieree is only 0.1 percent. If we look at the genetic difference between humans, great apes, and rhesus macaques, that number is seven pcreent. In contrast, the genetic difference between HIV sbyputes from different patients may be as much as 35 percent. Within a person infected with HIV, the genetic difference between an infecting mother virus and subsequent daughter viruses has been shown to be as much as five percent. This is the equivalent of a gorilla giving birth to a chimpanzee, then to an orangutan, then to a baboon, then to any random great ape within its lifetime.

Open Cloze

To appreciate the ________ way in which HIV __________ itself every time it __________, let's make a genetic __________. If we look at the DNA variation among humans of different races from different continents, the actual DNA __________ is only 0.1 percent. If we look at the genetic difference between humans, great apes, and rhesus macaques, that number is seven _______. In contrast, the genetic difference between HIV ________ from different patients may be as much as 35 percent. Within a person infected with HIV, the genetic difference between an infecting mother virus and subsequent daughter viruses has been shown to be as much as five percent. This is the equivalent of a gorilla giving birth to a chimpanzee, then to an orangutan, then to a baboon, then to any random great ape within its lifetime.

Solution

  1. percent
  2. subtypes
  3. comparison
  4. reproduces
  5. profound
  6. difference
  7. transforms

Original Text

To appreciate the profound way in which HIV transforms itself every time it reproduces, let's make a genetic comparison. If we look at the DNA variation among humans of different races from different continents, the actual DNA difference is only 0.1 percent. If we look at the genetic difference between humans, great apes, and rhesus macaques, that number is seven percent. In contrast, the genetic difference between HIV subtypes from different patients may be as much as 35 percent. Within a person infected with HIV, the genetic difference between an infecting mother virus and subsequent daughter viruses has been shown to be as much as five percent. This is the equivalent of a gorilla giving birth to a chimpanzee, then to an orangutan, then to a baboon, then to any random great ape within its lifetime.

Frequently Occurring Word Combinations

ngrams of length 2

collocation frequency
genetic difference 4

Important Words

  1. actual
  2. ape
  3. apes
  4. baboon
  5. birth
  6. chimpanzee
  7. comparison
  8. continents
  9. contrast
  10. daughter
  11. difference
  12. dna
  13. equivalent
  14. genetic
  15. giving
  16. gorilla
  17. great
  18. hiv
  19. humans
  20. infected
  21. infecting
  22. lifetime
  23. macaques
  24. mother
  25. number
  26. orangutan
  27. patients
  28. percent
  29. person
  30. profound
  31. races
  32. random
  33. reproduces
  34. rhesus
  35. shown
  36. subsequent
  37. subtypes
  38. time
  39. transforms
  40. variation
  41. virus
  42. viruses