full transcript

## Unscramble the Blue Letters

To appreciate the pnrouofd way in which HIV tranrmsfos itself every time it rdpruocees, let's make a genetic cspmaorion. If we look at the DNA variation among humans of different races from different continents, the actual DNA dncffieree is only 0.1 percent. If we look at the genetic difference between humans, great apes, and rhesus macaques, that number is seven pcreent. In contrast, the genetic difference between HIV sbyputes from different patients may be as much as 35 percent. Within a person infected with HIV, the genetic difference between an infecting mother virus and subsequent daughter viruses has been shown to be as much as five percent. This is the equivalent of a gorilla giving birth to a chimpanzee, then to an orangutan, then to a baboon, then to any random great ape within its lifetime.

## Open Cloze

To appreciate the ________ way in which HIV __________ itself every time it __________, let's make a genetic __________. If we look at the DNA variation among humans of different races from different continents, the actual DNA __________ is only 0.1 percent. If we look at the genetic difference between humans, great apes, and rhesus macaques, that number is seven _______. In contrast, the genetic difference between HIV ________ from different patients may be as much as 35 percent. Within a person infected with HIV, the genetic difference between an infecting mother virus and subsequent daughter viruses has been shown to be as much as five percent. This is the equivalent of a gorilla giving birth to a chimpanzee, then to an orangutan, then to a baboon, then to any random great ape within its lifetime.

1. percent
2. subtypes
3. comparison
4. reproduces
5. profound
6. difference
7. transforms

## Original Text

To appreciate the profound way in which HIV transforms itself every time it reproduces, let's make a genetic comparison. If we look at the DNA variation among humans of different races from different continents, the actual DNA difference is only 0.1 percent. If we look at the genetic difference between humans, great apes, and rhesus macaques, that number is seven percent. In contrast, the genetic difference between HIV subtypes from different patients may be as much as 35 percent. Within a person infected with HIV, the genetic difference between an infecting mother virus and subsequent daughter viruses has been shown to be as much as five percent. This is the equivalent of a gorilla giving birth to a chimpanzee, then to an orangutan, then to a baboon, then to any random great ape within its lifetime.

## Frequently Occurring Word Combinations

### ngrams of length 2

collocation frequency
genetic difference 4

1. actual
2. ape
3. apes
4. baboon
5. birth
6. chimpanzee
7. comparison
8. continents
9. contrast
10. daughter
11. difference
12. dna
13. equivalent
14. genetic
15. giving
16. gorilla
17. great
18. hiv
19. humans
20. infected
21. infecting
23. macaques
24. mother
25. number
26. orangutan
27. patients
28. percent
29. person
30. profound
31. races
32. random
33. reproduces
34. rhesus
35. shown
36. subsequent
37. subtypes
38. time
39. transforms
40. variation
41. virus
42. viruses