full transcript

From the Ted Talk by Stewart Brand: The dawn of de-extinction. Are you ready?

Unscramble the Blue Letters

Now, extinction is a different kind of death. It's bigger. We didn't really realize that until 1914, when the last passenger pigeon, a female named Martha, died at the Cincinnati zoo. This had been the most abundant bird in the world that'd been in North America for six million yaers. Suddenly it wasn't here at all. Flocks that were a mile wide and 400 miles long used to darken the sun. Aldo Leopold said this was a biological storm, a fhereaetd tempest. And indeed it was a keoystne species that enriched the entire etersan ddiouuces forest, from the msspipisisi to the Atlantic, from cadana down to the Gulf. But it went from five billion birds to zero in just a couple deeacds. What happened?

Open Cloze

Now, extinction is a different kind of death. It's bigger. We didn't really realize that until 1914, when the last passenger pigeon, a female named Martha, died at the Cincinnati zoo. This had been the most abundant bird in the world that'd been in North America for six million _____. Suddenly it wasn't here at all. Flocks that were a mile wide and 400 miles long used to darken the sun. Aldo Leopold said this was a biological storm, a _________ tempest. And indeed it was a ________ species that enriched the entire _______ _________ forest, from the ___________ to the Atlantic, from ______ down to the Gulf. But it went from five billion birds to zero in just a couple _______. What happened?

Solution

  1. feathered
  2. mississippi
  3. keystone
  4. years
  5. eastern
  6. deciduous
  7. canada
  8. decades

Original Text

Now, extinction is a different kind of death. It's bigger. We didn't really realize that until 1914, when the last passenger pigeon, a female named Martha, died at the Cincinnati zoo. This had been the most abundant bird in the world that'd been in North America for six million years. Suddenly it wasn't here at all. Flocks that were a mile wide and 400 miles long used to darken the sun. Aldo Leopold said this was a biological storm, a feathered tempest. And indeed it was a keystone species that enriched the entire eastern deciduous forest, from the Mississippi to the Atlantic, from Canada down to the Gulf. But it went from five billion birds to zero in just a couple decades. What happened?

Frequently Occurring Word Combinations

ngrams of length 2

collocation frequency
passenger pigeon 15
passenger pigeons 5
extinct species 4
conservation biologists 3
bob lanza 3
germ plasm 3
female named 2
million years 2
keystone species 2
animal called 2
pigeon dna 2
beth shapiro 2
george church 2
closest living 2
living relative 2
national geographic 2
san diego 2
frozen zoo 2
induced pluripotent 2
pluripotent stem 2
stem cells 2
mike mcgrew 2
red list 2
endangered species 2
good news 2
captive breeding 2
tinker bell 2

ngrams of length 3

collocation frequency
passenger pigeon dna 2
closest living relative 2
induced pluripotent stem 2
pluripotent stem cells 2

ngrams of length 4

collocation frequency
induced pluripotent stem cells 2

Important Words

  1. abundant
  2. aldo
  3. america
  4. atlantic
  5. bigger
  6. billion
  7. biological
  8. bird
  9. birds
  10. canada
  11. cincinnati
  12. couple
  13. darken
  14. death
  15. decades
  16. deciduous
  17. died
  18. eastern
  19. enriched
  20. entire
  21. extinction
  22. feathered
  23. female
  24. flocks
  25. forest
  26. gulf
  27. happened
  28. keystone
  29. kind
  30. leopold
  31. long
  32. martha
  33. mile
  34. miles
  35. million
  36. mississippi
  37. named
  38. north
  39. passenger
  40. pigeon
  41. realize
  42. species
  43. storm
  44. suddenly
  45. sun
  46. tempest
  47. wide
  48. world
  49. years
  50. zoo