full transcript
"From the Ted Talk by Joshua W. Pate: The fascinating science of phantom limbs"

Unscramble the Blue Letters

Once they pass through the spinal cord, ssoreny signals reach the barin. There, the somatosensory cortex processes them. The entire body is mapped in this cortex. stniivese body parts with many nerve endings, like the lips and hands, are repeneertsd by the largest areas. The cortical homunculus is a model of the human body with proportions based on the size of each body part’s representation in the cortex, The amnout of cortex devoted to a specific body part can grow or shrink based on how much sensory input the brain rieevecs from that body part. For example, representation of the left hand is lrgaer in violinists than in non-violinists. The brain also increases cartcoil representation when a body part is injured in oedrr to hihegten sensations that alert us to dnaegr. This increased representation can lead to phantom pain. The cortical map is also most likely responsible for the feeling of body patrs that are no longer there, because they still have representation in the brain. Over time, this reesttnopeiarn may shrink and the phantom limb may shrink with it.

Open Cloze

Once they pass through the spinal cord, _______ signals reach the _____. There, the somatosensory cortex processes them. The entire body is mapped in this cortex. _________ body parts with many nerve endings, like the lips and hands, are ___________ by the largest areas. The cortical homunculus is a model of the human body with proportions based on the size of each body part’s representation in the cortex, The ______ of cortex devoted to a specific body part can grow or shrink based on how much sensory input the brain ________ from that body part. For example, representation of the left hand is ______ in violinists than in non-violinists. The brain also increases ________ representation when a body part is injured in _____ to ________ sensations that alert us to ______. This increased representation can lead to phantom pain. The cortical map is also most likely responsible for the feeling of body _____ that are no longer there, because they still have representation in the brain. Over time, this ______________ may shrink and the phantom limb may shrink with it.

Solution

  1. larger
  2. represented
  3. amount
  4. brain
  5. danger
  6. heighten
  7. cortical
  8. representation
  9. order
  10. sensitive
  11. sensory
  12. parts
  13. receives

Original Text

Once they pass through the spinal cord, sensory signals reach the brain. There, the somatosensory cortex processes them. The entire body is mapped in this cortex. Sensitive body parts with many nerve endings, like the lips and hands, are represented by the largest areas. The cortical homunculus is a model of the human body with proportions based on the size of each body part’s representation in the cortex, The amount of cortex devoted to a specific body part can grow or shrink based on how much sensory input the brain receives from that body part. For example, representation of the left hand is larger in violinists than in non-violinists. The brain also increases cortical representation when a body part is injured in order to heighten sensations that alert us to danger. This increased representation can lead to phantom pain. The cortical map is also most likely responsible for the feeling of body parts that are no longer there, because they still have representation in the brain. Over time, this representation may shrink and the phantom limb may shrink with it.

ngrams of length 2

collocation frequency
phantom limb 5
phantom limbs 4
phantom pain 3
spinal cord 3
body part 3

Important Words

  1. alert
  2. amount
  3. areas
  4. based
  5. body
  6. brain
  7. cord
  8. cortex
  9. cortical
  10. danger
  11. devoted
  12. endings
  13. entire
  14. feeling
  15. grow
  16. hand
  17. hands
  18. heighten
  19. homunculus
  20. human
  21. increased
  22. increases
  23. injured
  24. input
  25. larger
  26. largest
  27. lead
  28. left
  29. limb
  30. lips
  31. longer
  32. map
  33. mapped
  34. model
  35. nerve
  36. order
  37. pain
  38. part
  39. parts
  40. pass
  41. phantom
  42. processes
  43. proportions
  44. reach
  45. receives
  46. representation
  47. represented
  48. responsible
  49. sensations
  50. sensitive
  51. sensory
  52. shrink
  53. signals
  54. size
  55. somatosensory
  56. specific
  57. spinal
  58. time
  59. violinists