full transcript

## Unscramble the Blue Letters

Enter Harry Beck. Harry Beck was a 29-year-old engineering draftsman who had been working on and off for the London unourengdrd. And he had a key insight, and that was that polepe riding underground in trains don't really care what's heiannppg aboveground. They just want to get from station to station â "Where do I get on? Where do I get off?" It's the system that's important, not the geography. He's taken this complicated mess of spaghetti, and he's simplified it. The lines only go in three directions: they're horizontal, they're vteiacrl, or they're 45 degrees. Likewise, he spaced the stations equally, he's made every station coolr correspond to the color of the line, and he's fixed it all so that it's not really a map anymore. What it is is a diagram, just like circuitry, except the circuitry here isn't wires conducting electrons, it's tuebs containing trains codtnincug people from pclae to place.

## Open Cloze

Enter Harry Beck. Harry Beck was a 29-year-old engineering draftsman who had been working on and off for the London ___________. And he had a key insight, and that was that ______ riding underground in trains don't really care what's _________ aboveground. They just want to get from station to station â "Where do I get on? Where do I get off?" It's the system that's important, not the geography. He's taken this complicated mess of spaghetti, and he's simplified it. The lines only go in three directions: they're horizontal, they're ________, or they're 45 degrees. Likewise, he spaced the stations equally, he's made every station _____ correspond to the color of the line, and he's fixed it all so that it's not really a map anymore. What it is is a diagram, just like circuitry, except the circuitry here isn't wires conducting electrons, it's _____ containing trains __________ people from _____ to place.

1. underground
2. tubes
3. place
4. happening
5. color
6. vertical
7. people
8. conducting

## Original Text

Enter Harry Beck. Harry Beck was a 29-year-old engineering draftsman who had been working on and off for the London Underground. And he had a key insight, and that was that people riding underground in trains don't really care what's happening aboveground. They just want to get from station to station â "Where do I get on? Where do I get off?" It's the system that's important, not the geography. He's taken this complicated mess of spaghetti, and he's simplified it. The lines only go in three directions: they're horizontal, they're vertical, or they're 45 degrees. Likewise, he spaced the stations equally, he's made every station color correspond to the color of the line, and he's fixed it all so that it's not really a map anymore. What it is is a diagram, just like circuitry, except the circuitry here isn't wires conducting electrons, it's tubes containing trains conducting people from place to place.

## Frequently Occurring Word Combinations

### ngrams of length 2

collocation frequency
harry beck 3
london underground 2

## Important Words

1. aboveground
2. anymore
3. beck
4. care
5. circuitry
6. color
7. complicated
8. conducting
9. correspond
10. degrees
11. diagram
12. draftsman
13. electrons
14. engineering
15. enter
16. equally
17. fixed
18. geography
19. happening
20. harry
21. horizontal
22. important
23. insight
24. key
25. line
26. lines
27. london
28. map
29. mess
30. people
31. place
32. riding
33. simplified
34. spaced
35. spaghetti
36. station
37. stations
38. system
39. trains
40. tubes
41. underground
42. vertical
43. wires
44. working