full transcript

From the Ted Talk by R.A. Mashelkar: Breakthrough designs for ultra-low-cost products

Unscramble the Blue Letters

Let's move on to something else. I've been talking about getting more from less for more. Let's move to health. We've takled about mbltiioy and the rest of it, let's talk about health. What's henppanig in the area of health? You know, you have new diseases that require new drugs. And if you look at the drug development 10 years ago and now, what has happened? 10 years ago, it used to cost about a quarter biillon. Today it ctoss 1.5 billion dollars. Time taken for moving a molecule to marketplace, after all the human and animal testing, was 10 years, now it is 15 years. Are you getting more drugs because you are sepdinng more time and more money? No, I'm sorry. We used to have 40, now they have come down to 30. So actually we are getting less from more for less and less people. Why less and less people? Because it is so expensive, so very few will be able to basically afrfod that.

Open Cloze

Let's move on to something else. I've been talking about getting more from less for more. Let's move to health. We've ______ about ________ and the rest of it, let's talk about health. What's _________ in the area of health? You know, you have new diseases that require new drugs. And if you look at the drug development 10 years ago and now, what has happened? 10 years ago, it used to cost about a quarter _______. Today it _____ 1.5 billion dollars. Time taken for moving a molecule to marketplace, after all the human and animal testing, was 10 years, now it is 15 years. Are you getting more drugs because you are ________ more time and more money? No, I'm sorry. We used to have 40, now they have come down to 30. So actually we are getting less from more for less and less people. Why less and less people? Because it is so expensive, so very few will be able to basically ______ that.

Solution

  1. talked
  2. afford
  3. spending
  4. mobility
  5. billion
  6. happening
  7. costs

Original Text

Let's move on to something else. I've been talking about getting more from less for more. Let's move to health. We've talked about mobility and the rest of it, let's talk about health. What's happening in the area of health? You know, you have new diseases that require new drugs. And if you look at the drug development 10 years ago and now, what has happened? 10 years ago, it used to cost about a quarter billion. Today it costs 1.5 billion dollars. Time taken for moving a molecule to marketplace, after all the human and animal testing, was 10 years, now it is 15 years. Are you getting more drugs because you are spending more time and more money? No, I'm sorry. We used to have 40, now they have come down to 30. So actually we are getting less from more for less and less people. Why less and less people? Because it is so expensive, so very few will be able to basically afford that.

Frequently Occurring Word Combinations

ngrams of length 2

collocation frequency
gandhian engineering 4
convex lens 4
million dollars 3
billion people 2
ratan tata 2
ample space 2
artificial foot 2
future generations 2
extreme affordability 2
focal length 2
lens leadership 2

ngrams of length 3

collocation frequency
convex lens leadership 2

Important Words

  1. afford
  2. animal
  3. area
  4. basically
  5. billion
  6. cost
  7. costs
  8. development
  9. diseases
  10. dollars
  11. drug
  12. drugs
  13. expensive
  14. happened
  15. happening
  16. health
  17. human
  18. marketplace
  19. mobility
  20. molecule
  21. money
  22. move
  23. moving
  24. people
  25. quarter
  26. require
  27. rest
  28. spending
  29. talk
  30. talked
  31. talking
  32. testing
  33. time
  34. today
  35. years