full transcript

From the Ted Talk by Martin Hanczyc: The line between life and not-life

Unscramble the Blue Letters

"If we accept the theory of evolution, then the first dawn of synthesis of life must cnsiost in the production of forms intermediate between the igoniarnc and the organic world, or between the non-living and living world, forms which possess only some of the rudimentary attributes of life" — so, the ones I just diesscusd — "to which other attributes will be slowly added in the course of development by the erliotuanovy actions of the environment." So we sratt simple, we make some structures that may have some of these characteristics of life, and then we try to dlvoeep that to become more lkiifele. This is how we can start to make a protocell. We use this idea claled self-assembly. What that means is, I can mix some chemicals together in a test tube in my lab, and these chemicals will start to self-associate to form larger and larger structures. So say on the order of tens of thousands, hundreds of thousands of molecules will come together to form a lagre structure that didn't exist before. And in this particular example, what I took is some membrane moeuclels, mixed those together in the right environment, and within seconds it forms these rather complex and buufetail structures here. These membranes are also quite similar, morphologically and functionally, to the membranes in your body, and we can use these, as they say, to form the body of our protocell.

Open Cloze

"If we accept the theory of evolution, then the first dawn of synthesis of life must _______ in the production of forms intermediate between the _________ and the organic world, or between the non-living and living world, forms which possess only some of the rudimentary attributes of life" — so, the ones I just _________ — "to which other attributes will be slowly added in the course of development by the ____________ actions of the environment." So we _____ simple, we make some structures that may have some of these characteristics of life, and then we try to _______ that to become more ________. This is how we can start to make a protocell. We use this idea ______ self-assembly. What that means is, I can mix some chemicals together in a test tube in my lab, and these chemicals will start to self-associate to form larger and larger structures. So say on the order of tens of thousands, hundreds of thousands of molecules will come together to form a _____ structure that didn't exist before. And in this particular example, what I took is some membrane _________, mixed those together in the right environment, and within seconds it forms these rather complex and _________ structures here. These membranes are also quite similar, morphologically and functionally, to the membranes in your body, and we can use these, as they say, to form the body of our protocell.

Solution

  1. molecules
  2. lifelike
  3. inorganic
  4. evolutionary
  5. develop
  6. consist
  7. beautiful
  8. large
  9. called
  10. start
  11. discussed

Original Text

"If we accept the theory of evolution, then the first dawn of synthesis of life must consist in the production of forms intermediate between the inorganic and the organic world, or between the non-living and living world, forms which possess only some of the rudimentary attributes of life" — so, the ones I just discussed — "to which other attributes will be slowly added in the course of development by the evolutionary actions of the environment." So we start simple, we make some structures that may have some of these characteristics of life, and then we try to develop that to become more lifelike. This is how we can start to make a protocell. We use this idea called self-assembly. What that means is, I can mix some chemicals together in a test tube in my lab, and these chemicals will start to self-associate to form larger and larger structures. So say on the order of tens of thousands, hundreds of thousands of molecules will come together to form a large structure that didn't exist before. And in this particular example, what I took is some membrane molecules, mixed those together in the right environment, and within seconds it forms these rather complex and beautiful structures here. These membranes are also quite similar, morphologically and functionally, to the membranes in your body, and we can use these, as they say, to form the body of our protocell.

Frequently Occurring Word Combinations

ngrams of length 2

collocation frequency
living systems 10
artificial life 3
oil droplet 3
protocell ab 3
building blocks 2
chemical metabolism 2
protocell starts 2
lifelike behavior 2
simple system 2
diverse mixture 2
chemical bonds 2
break chemical 2
pure chemicals 2
lifelike properties 2
primordial ooze 2
black tar 2

Important Words

  1. accept
  2. actions
  3. added
  4. attributes
  5. beautiful
  6. body
  7. called
  8. characteristics
  9. chemicals
  10. complex
  11. consist
  12. dawn
  13. develop
  14. development
  15. discussed
  16. environment
  17. evolution
  18. evolutionary
  19. exist
  20. form
  21. forms
  22. functionally
  23. hundreds
  24. idea
  25. inorganic
  26. intermediate
  27. lab
  28. large
  29. larger
  30. life
  31. lifelike
  32. living
  33. means
  34. membrane
  35. membranes
  36. mix
  37. mixed
  38. molecules
  39. morphologically
  40. order
  41. organic
  42. possess
  43. production
  44. protocell
  45. rudimentary
  46. seconds
  47. similar
  48. simple
  49. slowly
  50. start
  51. structure
  52. structures
  53. synthesis
  54. tens
  55. test
  56. theory
  57. thousands
  58. tube
  59. world