full transcript
#### From the Ted Talk by James A. Smith: The method that can "prove" almost anything

## Unscramble the Blue Letters

So if a p-value doesn’t answer the research question, why does the scientific conumitmy use it? Well, because even though a p-value doesn’t directly state the probability that the results are due to random canhce, it usually gives a ptrety reliable indication. At least, it does when used correctly. And that’s where many researchers, and even whole fields, have run into trouble. Most real studies are more complex than the tea exneieprmt. Scientists can test their research question in multiple ways, and some of these tests might produce a statistically sigciinfnat result, while others don’t. It might seem like a good idea to test every possibility. But it’s not, because with each ainotdidal test, the chance of a flsae positive increases. snrhaiecg for a low p-value, and then presenting only that analysis, is often called p-hacking. It’s like twrhoing darts until you hit a bullseye and then saying you only threw the dart that hit the bull’s eye.
## Open Cloze

So if a p-value doesn’t answer the research question, why does the scientific **_________** use it? Well, because even though a p-value doesn’t directly state the probability that the results are due to random **______**, it usually gives a **______** reliable indication. At least, it does when used correctly. And that’s where many researchers, and even whole fields, have run into trouble. Most real studies are more complex than the tea **__________**. Scientists can test their research question in multiple ways, and some of these tests might produce a statistically **___________** result, while others don’t. It might seem like a good idea to test every possibility. But it’s not, because with each **__________** test, the chance of a **_____** positive increases. **_________** for a low p-value, and then presenting only that analysis, is often called p-hacking. It’s like **________** darts until you hit a bullseye and then saying you only threw the dart that hit the bull’s eye.
## Solution

- searching
- significant
- throwing
- community
- chance
- experiment
- pretty
- false
- additional

## Original Text

So if a p-value doesn’t answer the research question, why does the scientific community use it? Well, because even though a p-value doesn’t directly state the probability that the results are due to random chance, it usually gives a pretty reliable indication. At least, it does when used correctly. And that’s where many researchers, and even whole fields, have run into trouble. Most real studies are more complex than the tea experiment. Scientists can test their research question in multiple ways, and some of these tests might produce a statistically significant result, while others don’t. It might seem like a good idea to test every possibility. But it’s not, because with each additional test, the chance of a false positive increases. Searching for a low p-value, and then presenting only that analysis, is often called p-hacking. It’s like throwing darts until you hit a bullseye and then saying you only threw the dart that hit the bull’s eye.
## Frequently Occurring Word Combinations

### ngrams of length 2

collocation |
frequency |

null hypothesis |
3 |

research question |
2 |

## Important Words

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- research
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- scientific
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- tea
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