full transcript

## Unscramble the Blue Letters

So if a p-value doesn’t answer the research question, why does the scientific conumitmy use it? Well, because even though a p-value doesn’t directly state the probability that the results are due to random canhce, it usually gives a ptrety reliable indication. At least, it does when used correctly. And that’s where many researchers, and even whole fields, have run into trouble. Most real studies are more complex than the tea exneieprmt. Scientists can test their research question in multiple ways, and some of these tests might produce a statistically sigciinfnat result, while others don’t. It might seem like a good idea to test every possibility. But it’s not, because with each ainotdidal test, the chance of a flsae positive increases. snrhaiecg for a low p-value, and then presenting only that analysis, is often called p-hacking. It’s like twrhoing darts until you hit a bullseye and then saying you only threw the dart that hit the bull’s eye.

## Open Cloze

So if a p-value doesn’t answer the research question, why does the scientific _________ use it? Well, because even though a p-value doesn’t directly state the probability that the results are due to random ______, it usually gives a ______ reliable indication. At least, it does when used correctly. And that’s where many researchers, and even whole fields, have run into trouble. Most real studies are more complex than the tea __________. Scientists can test their research question in multiple ways, and some of these tests might produce a statistically ___________ result, while others don’t. It might seem like a good idea to test every possibility. But it’s not, because with each __________ test, the chance of a _____ positive increases. _________ for a low p-value, and then presenting only that analysis, is often called p-hacking. It’s like ________ darts until you hit a bullseye and then saying you only threw the dart that hit the bull’s eye.

1. searching
2. significant
3. throwing
4. community
5. chance
6. experiment
7. pretty
8. false

## Original Text

So if a p-value doesn’t answer the research question, why does the scientific community use it? Well, because even though a p-value doesn’t directly state the probability that the results are due to random chance, it usually gives a pretty reliable indication. At least, it does when used correctly. And that’s where many researchers, and even whole fields, have run into trouble. Most real studies are more complex than the tea experiment. Scientists can test their research question in multiple ways, and some of these tests might produce a statistically significant result, while others don’t. It might seem like a good idea to test every possibility. But it’s not, because with each additional test, the chance of a false positive increases. Searching for a low p-value, and then presenting only that analysis, is often called p-hacking. It’s like throwing darts until you hit a bullseye and then saying you only threw the dart that hit the bull’s eye.

## Frequently Occurring Word Combinations

### ngrams of length 2

collocation frequency
null hypothesis 3
research question 2

## Important Words

2. analysis
4. bullseye
5. called
6. chance
7. community
8. complex
9. correctly
10. dart
11. darts
12. due
13. experiment
14. eye
15. false
16. fields
17. good
18. hit
19. idea
20. increases
21. indication
22. multiple
23. positive
24. possibility
25. presenting
26. pretty
27. probability
28. produce
29. question
30. random
31. real
32. reliable
33. research
34. researchers
35. result
36. results
37. run
38. scientific
39. scientists
40. searching
41. significant
42. state
43. statistically
44. studies
45. tea
46. test
47. tests
48. threw
49. throwing
50. trouble
51. ways