full transcript
"From the Ted Talk by Grégoire Courtine: The paralyzed rat that walked"

Unscramble the Blue Letters

For this, I leveraged 20 years of past research in neuroscience, first to replace the missing fuel with pharmacological atnegs that prepare the neurons in the sanipl cord to fire, and second, to mimic the aclcaoreetr pedal with electrical stimulation. So here imagine an electrode implanted on the back of the spinal cord to deliver painless stimulation. It took many years, but eventually we developed an electrochemical nohiuserroetpss that tseorrfnamd the neural network in the spinal cord from dormant to a highly foauntcinl state. iladetmemiy, the paralyzed rat can stand. As soon as the trdmieall belt starts mnviog, the animal shows coordinated movement of the leg, but without the biarn. Here what I call "the spinal brain" cognitively pceorsses sensory information arising from the moving leg and makes decisions as to how to activate the muscle in order to stand, to walk, to run, and even here, while sprinting, instantly stand if the treadmill stops moving.

Open Cloze

For this, I leveraged 20 years of past research in neuroscience, first to replace the missing fuel with pharmacological ______ that prepare the neurons in the ______ cord to fire, and second, to mimic the ___________ pedal with electrical stimulation. So here imagine an electrode implanted on the back of the spinal cord to deliver painless stimulation. It took many years, but eventually we developed an electrochemical _______________ that ___________ the neural network in the spinal cord from dormant to a highly __________ state. ___________, the paralyzed rat can stand. As soon as the _________ belt starts ______, the animal shows coordinated movement of the leg, but without the _____. Here what I call "the spinal brain" cognitively _________ sensory information arising from the moving leg and makes decisions as to how to activate the muscle in order to stand, to walk, to run, and even here, while sprinting, instantly stand if the treadmill stops moving.

Solution

  1. brain
  2. neuroprosthesis
  3. functional
  4. agents
  5. moving
  6. accelerator
  7. treadmill
  8. spinal
  9. transformed
  10. processes
  11. immediately

Original Text

For this, I leveraged 20 years of past research in neuroscience, first to replace the missing fuel with pharmacological agents that prepare the neurons in the spinal cord to fire, and second, to mimic the accelerator pedal with electrical stimulation. So here imagine an electrode implanted on the back of the spinal cord to deliver painless stimulation. It took many years, but eventually we developed an electrochemical neuroprosthesis that transformed the neural network in the spinal cord from dormant to a highly functional state. Immediately, the paralyzed rat can stand. As soon as the treadmill belt starts moving, the animal shows coordinated movement of the leg, but without the brain. Here what I call "the spinal brain" cognitively processes sensory information arising from the moving leg and makes decisions as to how to activate the muscle in order to stand, to walk, to run, and even here, while sprinting, instantly stand if the treadmill stops moving.

ngrams of length 2

collocation frequency
spinal cord 21
cord injury 5
injured people 3
electrochemical neuroprosthesis 3
leg movement 3
nervous system 3

ngrams of length 3

collocation frequency
spinal cord injury 5

Important Words

  1. accelerator
  2. activate
  3. agents
  4. animal
  5. arising
  6. belt
  7. brain
  8. call
  9. cognitively
  10. coordinated
  11. cord
  12. decisions
  13. deliver
  14. developed
  15. dormant
  16. electrical
  17. electrochemical
  18. electrode
  19. eventually
  20. fire
  21. fuel
  22. functional
  23. highly
  24. imagine
  25. immediately
  26. implanted
  27. information
  28. instantly
  29. leg
  30. leveraged
  31. mimic
  32. missing
  33. movement
  34. moving
  35. muscle
  36. network
  37. neural
  38. neurons
  39. neuroprosthesis
  40. neuroscience
  41. order
  42. painless
  43. paralyzed
  44. pedal
  45. pharmacological
  46. prepare
  47. processes
  48. rat
  49. replace
  50. research
  51. run
  52. sensory
  53. shows
  54. spinal
  55. sprinting
  56. stand
  57. starts
  58. state
  59. stimulation
  60. stops
  61. transformed
  62. treadmill
  63. walk
  64. years