full transcript

From the Ted Talk by Grégoire Courtine: The paralyzed rat that walked

Unscramble the Blue Letters

But the remaining question was, how? I mean, how is it possible? And here, what we found was completely unexpected. This novel training paradigm encouraged the brain to create new connections, some relay circuits that relay information from the barin past the injury and rtoerse cortical control over the locomotor networks below the inrjuy. And here, you can see one such example, where we label the fibers coming from the brain in red. This blue neuron is connected with the locomotor center, and what this constellation of stanyipc contacts means is that the brain is renccteeond with the locomotor center with only one relay neuron. But the remodeling was not restricted to the lesion area. It occurred throughout the cretnal nervous system, including in the brain stem, where we observed up to 300-percent increase in the density of fbreis coming from the brain. We did not aim to repair the spinal cord, yet we were able to promote one of the more extensive remodeling of axonal projections ever ovesbred in the central nervous syestm of adult mammal after an injury.

Open Cloze

But the remaining question was, how? I mean, how is it possible? And here, what we found was completely unexpected. This novel training paradigm encouraged the brain to create new connections, some relay circuits that relay information from the _____ past the injury and _______ cortical control over the locomotor networks below the ______. And here, you can see one such example, where we label the fibers coming from the brain in red. This blue neuron is connected with the locomotor center, and what this constellation of ________ contacts means is that the brain is ___________ with the locomotor center with only one relay neuron. But the remodeling was not restricted to the lesion area. It occurred throughout the _______ nervous system, including in the brain stem, where we observed up to 300-percent increase in the density of ______ coming from the brain. We did not aim to repair the spinal cord, yet we were able to promote one of the more extensive remodeling of axonal projections ever ________ in the central nervous ______ of adult mammal after an injury.

Solution

  1. injury
  2. fibers
  3. restore
  4. central
  5. reconnected
  6. brain
  7. synaptic
  8. system
  9. observed

Original Text

But the remaining question was, how? I mean, how is it possible? And here, what we found was completely unexpected. This novel training paradigm encouraged the brain to create new connections, some relay circuits that relay information from the brain past the injury and restore cortical control over the locomotor networks below the injury. And here, you can see one such example, where we label the fibers coming from the brain in red. This blue neuron is connected with the locomotor center, and what this constellation of synaptic contacts means is that the brain is reconnected with the locomotor center with only one relay neuron. But the remodeling was not restricted to the lesion area. It occurred throughout the central nervous system, including in the brain stem, where we observed up to 300-percent increase in the density of fibers coming from the brain. We did not aim to repair the spinal cord, yet we were able to promote one of the more extensive remodeling of axonal projections ever observed in the central nervous system of adult mammal after an injury.

Frequently Occurring Word Combinations

ngrams of length 2

collocation frequency
spinal cord 17
cord injury 3
electrochemical neuroprosthesis 3
injured people 2
permanent paralysis 2
highly functional 2
functional state 2
paralyzed rat 2
locomotor networks 2
fibers coming 2
central nervous 2

ngrams of length 3

collocation frequency
spinal cord injury 3
highly functional state 2

Important Words

  1. adult
  2. aim
  3. area
  4. axonal
  5. blue
  6. brain
  7. center
  8. central
  9. circuits
  10. coming
  11. completely
  12. connected
  13. connections
  14. constellation
  15. contacts
  16. control
  17. cord
  18. cortical
  19. create
  20. density
  21. encouraged
  22. extensive
  23. fibers
  24. including
  25. increase
  26. information
  27. injury
  28. label
  29. lesion
  30. locomotor
  31. mammal
  32. means
  33. nervous
  34. networks
  35. neuron
  36. observed
  37. occurred
  38. paradigm
  39. projections
  40. promote
  41. question
  42. reconnected
  43. red
  44. relay
  45. remaining
  46. remodeling
  47. repair
  48. restore
  49. restricted
  50. spinal
  51. stem
  52. synaptic
  53. system
  54. training
  55. unexpected