full transcript

From the Ted Talk by Matt Langione: The promise of quantum computers

Unscramble the Blue Letters

For another example, let's rertun to drug discovery, a process COVID-19 has brought into sharp focus for most of us for the very first time. Designing a vaccine for an infectious disease like COVID-19, from identifying the drivers of the dsaseie, to screening millions of candidate activators and inhibitors, is a process that typically tekas 10 or more years per drug, 90 percent of which fail to pass clinical tilars. The cost to pharmaceutical companies is two to three billion dollars per approved drug. But the social costs of delays and furieals are much, much hieghr. More than eight million people die every year of infectious diseases. That's 15 times as many people as died during the first six mnthos of the carouonivrs pandemic. So why has computational drug design failed to live up to etxeonactpis? Again, it's a matter of limited computational resources, at least in part. If identifying a disease pathway in the body is like a lock, designing a drug reriequs searching through a massive chemical space, effectively a maze of molecular seurrtutcs, to find the right cpomuond, to find a key, in other wrods, that fits the lock. The problem is that tracing the entire relevant span of chemical space and coinevntrg it into a searchable database for drug design would take 5 trillion trillion, trillion, trillion yares on the world's fsatset srueemtpcpuor. On a quantum computer, a little more than a half hour.

Open Cloze

For another example, let's ______ to drug discovery, a process COVID-19 has brought into sharp focus for most of us for the very first time. Designing a vaccine for an infectious disease like COVID-19, from identifying the drivers of the _______, to screening millions of candidate activators and inhibitors, is a process that typically _____ 10 or more years per drug, 90 percent of which fail to pass clinical ______. The cost to pharmaceutical companies is two to three billion dollars per approved drug. But the social costs of delays and ________ are much, much ______. More than eight million people die every year of infectious diseases. That's 15 times as many people as died during the first six ______ of the ___________ pandemic. So why has computational drug design failed to live up to ____________? Again, it's a matter of limited computational resources, at least in part. If identifying a disease pathway in the body is like a lock, designing a drug ________ searching through a massive chemical space, effectively a maze of molecular __________, to find the right ________, to find a key, in other _____, that fits the lock. The problem is that tracing the entire relevant span of chemical space and __________ it into a searchable database for drug design would take 5 trillion trillion, trillion, trillion _____ on the world's _______ _____________. On a quantum computer, a little more than a half hour.

Solution

  1. years
  2. compound
  3. disease
  4. return
  5. structures
  6. coronavirus
  7. supercomputer
  8. higher
  9. failures
  10. words
  11. requires
  12. fastest
  13. months
  14. converting
  15. trials
  16. expectations
  17. takes

Original Text

For another example, let's return to drug discovery, a process COVID-19 has brought into sharp focus for most of us for the very first time. Designing a vaccine for an infectious disease like COVID-19, from identifying the drivers of the disease, to screening millions of candidate activators and inhibitors, is a process that typically takes 10 or more years per drug, 90 percent of which fail to pass clinical trials. The cost to pharmaceutical companies is two to three billion dollars per approved drug. But the social costs of delays and failures are much, much higher. More than eight million people die every year of infectious diseases. That's 15 times as many people as died during the first six months of the coronavirus pandemic. So why has computational drug design failed to live up to expectations? Again, it's a matter of limited computational resources, at least in part. If identifying a disease pathway in the body is like a lock, designing a drug requires searching through a massive chemical space, effectively a maze of molecular structures, to find the right compound, to find a key, in other words, that fits the lock. The problem is that tracing the entire relevant span of chemical space and converting it into a searchable database for drug design would take 5 trillion trillion, trillion, trillion years on the world's fastest supercomputer. On a quantum computer, a little more than a half hour.

Frequently Occurring Word Combinations

ngrams of length 2

collocation frequency
quantum computers 7
quantum computing 5
computational drug 2
computers operate 2
quantum computer 2
single year 2
fastest supercomputer 2
billion dollars 2
drug design 2
risk simulations 2
current computers 2

Important Words

  1. activators
  2. approved
  3. billion
  4. body
  5. brought
  6. candidate
  7. chemical
  8. clinical
  9. companies
  10. compound
  11. computational
  12. computer
  13. converting
  14. coronavirus
  15. cost
  16. costs
  17. database
  18. delays
  19. design
  20. designing
  21. die
  22. died
  23. discovery
  24. disease
  25. diseases
  26. dollars
  27. drivers
  28. drug
  29. effectively
  30. entire
  31. expectations
  32. fail
  33. failed
  34. failures
  35. fastest
  36. find
  37. fits
  38. focus
  39. higher
  40. hour
  41. identifying
  42. infectious
  43. inhibitors
  44. key
  45. limited
  46. live
  47. lock
  48. massive
  49. matter
  50. maze
  51. million
  52. millions
  53. molecular
  54. months
  55. pandemic
  56. part
  57. pass
  58. pathway
  59. people
  60. percent
  61. pharmaceutical
  62. problem
  63. process
  64. quantum
  65. relevant
  66. requires
  67. resources
  68. return
  69. screening
  70. searchable
  71. searching
  72. sharp
  73. social
  74. space
  75. span
  76. structures
  77. supercomputer
  78. takes
  79. time
  80. times
  81. tracing
  82. trials
  83. trillion
  84. typically
  85. vaccine
  86. words
  87. year
  88. years