full transcript

From the Ted Talk by Seth Berkley: The quest for the coronavirus vaccine

Unscramble the Blue Letters

SB: Well, of course, when this first started, there were two ways to make vaccines. You could gnird them up and inject them, so-called "whole killed viacnecs." So you took organisms and you got an immune response, and sometimes those organisms, even though they were dead, gave you a pretty whopping immune response: your arms were sore, you got fevers. Then we moved to these weakened live viruses, and frankly, those are the best vaccines. That's what measles is. That's what ylloew fever is. These are wenaeekd veisurs. They don't give you disease, but because they look like the ntuaral viruses, your body gets protection and, frankly, you get protection for your whole life. Today, because people are worried about side effects, we've beugn to use molecular biology and use little bits of it, and therefore, it's mvoed forward. But the reason people are mostly scared is because, frankly, vaccines have been so successful. You don't expect, if you have a child or two children, that those children are going to die of these diseases, unlike in the past, when three or four out of your five or six or seven kids would die. So tdoay, ppeloe think, well, gee, these daesises aren't around, they're not that bad and, by the way, if I'm injecting these things, maybe they're not organic, maybe it'll make my child cry, maybe it'll make them sick, and I don't need to do it. And that's the challenge. You don't want to scare people to death on how bad these diseases can be, but at the same time, you want them to understand that these diseases are serious and can cause really bad disease and seqeula.

Open Cloze

SB: Well, of course, when this first started, there were two ways to make vaccines. You could _____ them up and inject them, so-called "whole killed ________." So you took organisms and you got an immune response, and sometimes those organisms, even though they were dead, gave you a pretty whopping immune response: your arms were sore, you got fevers. Then we moved to these weakened live viruses, and frankly, those are the best vaccines. That's what measles is. That's what ______ fever is. These are ________ _______. They don't give you disease, but because they look like the _______ viruses, your body gets protection and, frankly, you get protection for your whole life. Today, because people are worried about side effects, we've _____ to use molecular biology and use little bits of it, and therefore, it's _____ forward. But the reason people are mostly scared is because, frankly, vaccines have been so successful. You don't expect, if you have a child or two children, that those children are going to die of these diseases, unlike in the past, when three or four out of your five or six or seven kids would die. So _____, ______ think, well, gee, these ________ aren't around, they're not that bad and, by the way, if I'm injecting these things, maybe they're not organic, maybe it'll make my child cry, maybe it'll make them sick, and I don't need to do it. And that's the challenge. You don't want to scare people to death on how bad these diseases can be, but at the same time, you want them to understand that these diseases are serious and can cause really bad disease and _______.

Solution

  1. grind
  2. today
  3. moved
  4. viruses
  5. vaccines
  6. weakened
  7. sequela
  8. yellow
  9. people
  10. begun
  11. natural
  12. diseases

Original Text

SB: Well, of course, when this first started, there were two ways to make vaccines. You could grind them up and inject them, so-called "whole killed vaccines." So you took organisms and you got an immune response, and sometimes those organisms, even though they were dead, gave you a pretty whopping immune response: your arms were sore, you got fevers. Then we moved to these weakened live viruses, and frankly, those are the best vaccines. That's what measles is. That's what yellow fever is. These are weakened viruses. They don't give you disease, but because they look like the natural viruses, your body gets protection and, frankly, you get protection for your whole life. Today, because people are worried about side effects, we've begun to use molecular biology and use little bits of it, and therefore, it's moved forward. But the reason people are mostly scared is because, frankly, vaccines have been so successful. You don't expect, if you have a child or two children, that those children are going to die of these diseases, unlike in the past, when three or four out of your five or six or seven kids would die. So today, people think, well, gee, these diseases aren't around, they're not that bad and, by the way, if I'm injecting these things, maybe they're not organic, maybe it'll make my child cry, maybe it'll make them sick, and I don't need to do it. And that's the challenge. You don't want to scare people to death on how bad these diseases can be, but at the same time, you want them to understand that these diseases are serious and can cause really bad disease and sequela.

Frequently Occurring Word Combinations

ngrams of length 2

collocation frequency
candidate vaccine 5
immune response 5
bill gates 4
clinical trials 4
long time 3
ted community 3
developing world 3
clinical trial 3
public sector 3
common cold 3
time line 3
good immune 3
health system 3
whitney pennington 2
unprecedented moment 2
pretty good 2
seth berkley 2
coronavirus vaccine 2
yellow fever 2
million additional 2
additional children 2
global response 2
ted stage 2
fully tested 2
market failure 2
developing countries 2
cold viruses 2
animal model 2
genetic sequence 2
licensed product 2
clinical testing 2
efficacy trial 2
enroll people 2
informed consent 2
questions coming 2
health workers 2
bill talked 2
immune responses 2
wealthy countries 2
scary dance 2
good idea 2
global public 2
good news 2
ted talk 2
great question 2
people listening 2

ngrams of length 3

collocation frequency
million additional children 2
common cold viruses 2

Important Words

  1. arms
  2. bad
  3. begun
  4. biology
  5. bits
  6. body
  7. challenge
  8. child
  9. children
  10. cry
  11. dead
  12. death
  13. die
  14. disease
  15. diseases
  16. effects
  17. expect
  18. fever
  19. fevers
  20. frankly
  21. gave
  22. gee
  23. give
  24. grind
  25. immune
  26. inject
  27. injecting
  28. kids
  29. killed
  30. life
  31. live
  32. measles
  33. molecular
  34. moved
  35. natural
  36. organic
  37. organisms
  38. people
  39. pretty
  40. protection
  41. reason
  42. response
  43. scare
  44. scared
  45. sequela
  46. sick
  47. side
  48. sore
  49. started
  50. successful
  51. time
  52. today
  53. understand
  54. vaccines
  55. viruses
  56. ways
  57. weakened
  58. whopping
  59. worried
  60. yellow