full transcript

From the Ted Talk by Floyd E. Romesberg: The radical possibilities of man-made DNA

Unscramble the Blue Letters

The first is to get the cells to make proteins for us, for our use. Proteins are being used today for an irenslcnigay broad range of different applications, from materials that protect soldiers from injury to devices that detect dangerous compounds, but at least to me, the most exciting application is protein drugs. Despite being relatively new, protein drugs have already revolutionized medicine, and, for example, insulin is a poirten. You've probably heard of it, and it's meaunaftrcud as a drug that has completely changed how we treat diabetes. But the problem is that proteins are really hard to make and the only practical way to get them is to get clels to make them for you. So of course, with natural cells, you can only get them to make proteins with the natural amino acids, and so the properties those proteins can have, the applications they could be dveeopeld for, must be limited by the nature of those amino acids that the protein's built from. So here they are, the 20 normal amino acids that are strung together to make a protein, and I think you can see, they're not that different-looking. They don't bring that many different fonctnuis. They don't make that many different functions available. Compare that with the small molecules that synthetic chemists make as drgus. Now, they're much simpler than proteins, but they're routinely built from a much broader range of diverse things. Don't worry about the molecular details, but I think you can see how different they are. And in fact, it's their differences that make them great drugs to teart different diseases. So it's really ptrivvoacoe to wonder what sort of new protein drugs you could deloevp if you could bulid poritnes from more diverse things.

Open Cloze

The first is to get the cells to make proteins for us, for our use. Proteins are being used today for an ____________ broad range of different applications, from materials that protect soldiers from injury to devices that detect dangerous compounds, but at least to me, the most exciting application is protein drugs. Despite being relatively new, protein drugs have already revolutionized medicine, and, for example, insulin is a _______. You've probably heard of it, and it's ____________ as a drug that has completely changed how we treat diabetes. But the problem is that proteins are really hard to make and the only practical way to get them is to get _____ to make them for you. So of course, with natural cells, you can only get them to make proteins with the natural amino acids, and so the properties those proteins can have, the applications they could be _________ for, must be limited by the nature of those amino acids that the protein's built from. So here they are, the 20 normal amino acids that are strung together to make a protein, and I think you can see, they're not that different-looking. They don't bring that many different _________. They don't make that many different functions available. Compare that with the small molecules that synthetic chemists make as _____. Now, they're much simpler than proteins, but they're routinely built from a much broader range of diverse things. Don't worry about the molecular details, but I think you can see how different they are. And in fact, it's their differences that make them great drugs to _____ different diseases. So it's really ___________ to wonder what sort of new protein drugs you could _______ if you could _____ ________ from more diverse things.

Solution

  1. increasingly
  2. drugs
  3. treat
  4. proteins
  5. build
  6. provocative
  7. cells
  8. develop
  9. manufactured
  10. developed
  11. protein
  12. functions

Original Text

The first is to get the cells to make proteins for us, for our use. Proteins are being used today for an increasingly broad range of different applications, from materials that protect soldiers from injury to devices that detect dangerous compounds, but at least to me, the most exciting application is protein drugs. Despite being relatively new, protein drugs have already revolutionized medicine, and, for example, insulin is a protein. You've probably heard of it, and it's manufactured as a drug that has completely changed how we treat diabetes. But the problem is that proteins are really hard to make and the only practical way to get them is to get cells to make them for you. So of course, with natural cells, you can only get them to make proteins with the natural amino acids, and so the properties those proteins can have, the applications they could be developed for, must be limited by the nature of those amino acids that the protein's built from. So here they are, the 20 normal amino acids that are strung together to make a protein, and I think you can see, they're not that different-looking. They don't bring that many different functions. They don't make that many different functions available. Compare that with the small molecules that synthetic chemists make as drugs. Now, they're much simpler than proteins, but they're routinely built from a much broader range of diverse things. Don't worry about the molecular details, but I think you can see how different they are. And in fact, it's their differences that make them great drugs to treat different diseases. So it's really provocative to wonder what sort of new protein drugs you could develop if you could build proteins from more diverse things.

Frequently Occurring Word Combinations

ngrams of length 2

collocation frequency
amino acids 8
semisynthetic organisms 7
genetic alphabet 4
protein drugs 4
normal amino 3
build proteins 3
genetic letters 2
english alphabet 2
pretty famous 2
started working 2
natural letters 2
semisynthetic form 2
natural molecules 2
expanded vocabulary 2
small molecules 2
possibility space 2

ngrams of length 3

collocation frequency
normal amino acids 2

Important Words

  1. acids
  2. amino
  3. application
  4. applications
  5. bring
  6. broad
  7. broader
  8. build
  9. built
  10. cells
  11. changed
  12. chemists
  13. compare
  14. completely
  15. compounds
  16. dangerous
  17. details
  18. detect
  19. develop
  20. developed
  21. devices
  22. diabetes
  23. differences
  24. diseases
  25. diverse
  26. drug
  27. drugs
  28. exciting
  29. fact
  30. functions
  31. great
  32. hard
  33. heard
  34. increasingly
  35. injury
  36. insulin
  37. limited
  38. manufactured
  39. materials
  40. medicine
  41. molecular
  42. molecules
  43. natural
  44. nature
  45. normal
  46. practical
  47. problem
  48. properties
  49. protect
  50. protein
  51. proteins
  52. provocative
  53. range
  54. revolutionized
  55. routinely
  56. simpler
  57. small
  58. soldiers
  59. sort
  60. strung
  61. synthetic
  62. today
  63. treat
  64. worry