full transcript
"From the Ted Talk by Sara Seager: The search for planets beyond our solar system"

Unscramble the Blue Letters

I want you to imagine, for a monmet, a rainbow. And if we could look at this rnaoibw closely, we would see that some dark lines are missing. And here's our sun, the white lhgit of our sun spilt up, not by raindrops, but by a spectrograph. And you can see all these dark, vertical lines. Some are very narrow, some are wide, some are sdhead at the edges. And this is actually how astronomers have studied objects in the heavens, literally, for over a century. So here, each different atom and muleloce has a seipacl set of lines, a fingerprint, if you will. And that's how we study elexnapot atmospheres. And I'll just never forget when I started working on exoplanet atmospheres 20 years ago, how many people told me, "This will never happen. We'll never be able to study them. Why are you bothering?" And that's why I'm pleased to tell you about all the atmospheres stidued now, and this is really a field of its own. So when it comes to other pletnas, other Earths, in the future when we can observe them, what kind of gases would we be looking for? Well, you know, our own Earth has oxygen in the atmosphere to 20 percent by volume. That's a lot of ogyxen. But without plants and photosynthetic life, there would be no oxygen, virtually no oxygen in our atmosphere. So oxygen is here because of life. And our goal then is to look for gases in other planet atmospheres, gesas that don't belong, that we might be able to attribute to life. But which molecules should we search for? I actually told you how diverse exoplanets are. We expcet that to continue in the future when we find other Earths.

Open Cloze

I want you to imagine, for a ______, a rainbow. And if we could look at this _______ closely, we would see that some dark lines are missing. And here's our sun, the white _____ of our sun _____ up, not by raindrops, but by a spectrograph. And you can see all these dark, vertical lines. Some are very narrow, some are wide, some are ______ at the edges. And this is actually how astronomers have studied objects in the heavens, literally, for over a century. So here, each different atom and ________ has a _______ set of lines, a fingerprint, if you will. And that's how we study _________ atmospheres. And I'll just never forget when I started working on exoplanet atmospheres 20 years ago, how many people told me, "This will never happen. We'll never be able to study them. Why are you bothering?" And that's why I'm pleased to tell you about all the atmospheres _______ now, and this is really a field of its own. So when it comes to other _______, other Earths, in the future when we can observe them, what kind of gases would we be looking for? Well, you know, our own Earth has oxygen in the atmosphere to 20 percent by volume. That's a lot of ______. But without plants and photosynthetic life, there would be no oxygen, virtually no oxygen in our atmosphere. So oxygen is here because of life. And our goal then is to look for gases in other planet atmospheres, _____ that don't belong, that we might be able to attribute to life. But which molecules should we search for? I actually told you how diverse exoplanets are. We ______ that to continue in the future when we find other Earths.

Solution

  1. special
  2. gases
  3. split
  4. exoplanet
  5. expect
  6. rainbow
  7. studied
  8. shaded
  9. molecule
  10. oxygen
  11. light
  12. moment
  13. planets

Original Text

I want you to imagine, for a moment, a rainbow. And if we could look at this rainbow closely, we would see that some dark lines are missing. And here's our sun, the white light of our sun split up, not by raindrops, but by a spectrograph. And you can see all these dark, vertical lines. Some are very narrow, some are wide, some are shaded at the edges. And this is actually how astronomers have studied objects in the heavens, literally, for over a century. So here, each different atom and molecule has a special set of lines, a fingerprint, if you will. And that's how we study exoplanet atmospheres. And I'll just never forget when I started working on exoplanet atmospheres 20 years ago, how many people told me, "This will never happen. We'll never be able to study them. Why are you bothering?" And that's why I'm pleased to tell you about all the atmospheres studied now, and this is really a field of its own. So when it comes to other planets, other Earths, in the future when we can observe them, what kind of gases would we be looking for? Well, you know, our own Earth has oxygen in the atmosphere to 20 percent by volume. That's a lot of oxygen. But without plants and photosynthetic life, there would be no oxygen, virtually no oxygen in our atmosphere. So oxygen is here because of life. And our goal then is to look for gases in other planet atmospheres, gases that don't belong, that we might be able to attribute to life. But which molecules should we search for? I actually told you how diverse exoplanets are. We expect that to continue in the future when we find other Earths.

ngrams of length 2

collocation frequency
exoplanet atmospheres 6
night sky 3
small planets 3
space telescope 3
planet atmospheres 3
crazy theory 3
space telescopes 3

Important Words

  1. astronomers
  2. atmosphere
  3. atmospheres
  4. atom
  5. attribute
  6. belong
  7. bothering
  8. century
  9. closely
  10. continue
  11. dark
  12. diverse
  13. earth
  14. earths
  15. edges
  16. exoplanet
  17. exoplanets
  18. expect
  19. field
  20. find
  21. fingerprint
  22. forget
  23. future
  24. gases
  25. goal
  26. happen
  27. heavens
  28. imagine
  29. kind
  30. life
  31. light
  32. lines
  33. literally
  34. lot
  35. missing
  36. molecule
  37. molecules
  38. moment
  39. narrow
  40. objects
  41. observe
  42. oxygen
  43. people
  44. percent
  45. photosynthetic
  46. planet
  47. planets
  48. plants
  49. pleased
  50. rainbow
  51. raindrops
  52. search
  53. set
  54. shaded
  55. special
  56. spectrograph
  57. split
  58. started
  59. studied
  60. study
  61. sun
  62. told
  63. vertical
  64. virtually
  65. volume
  66. white
  67. wide
  68. working
  69. years