full transcript

From the Ted Talk by David Baker: 5 challenges we could solve by designing new proteins

Unscramble the Blue Letters

The shapes of proteins, and hence their remarkable functions, are completely specified by the sequence of ainmo acids in the protein chain. In this picture, each letter on top is an amino acid. Where do these sequences come from? The geens in your genome specify the amino acid sequences of your proteins. Each gene encodes the amino acid sequence of a single protein. The trltionasan between these amino acid sequences and the structures and functions of proteins is known as the protein folding problem. It's a very hard problem because there's so many different shapes a protein can apdot. Because of this complexity, hmuans have only been able to harness the power of proteins by making very slaml changes to the amino acid sequences of the proteins we've found in nrutae.

Open Cloze

The shapes of proteins, and hence their remarkable functions, are completely specified by the sequence of _____ acids in the protein chain. In this picture, each letter on top is an amino acid. Where do these sequences come from? The _____ in your genome specify the amino acid sequences of your proteins. Each gene encodes the amino acid sequence of a single protein. The ___________ between these amino acid sequences and the structures and functions of proteins is known as the protein folding problem. It's a very hard problem because there's so many different shapes a protein can _____. Because of this complexity, ______ have only been able to harness the power of proteins by making very _____ changes to the amino acid sequences of the proteins we've found in ______.

Solution

  1. adopt
  2. humans
  3. small
  4. genes
  5. translation
  6. amino
  7. nature

Original Text

The shapes of proteins, and hence their remarkable functions, are completely specified by the sequence of amino acids in the protein chain. In this picture, each letter on top is an amino acid. Where do these sequences come from? The genes in your genome specify the amino acid sequences of your proteins. Each gene encodes the amino acid sequence of a single protein. The translation between these amino acid sequences and the structures and functions of proteins is known as the protein folding problem. It's a very hard problem because there's so many different shapes a protein can adopt. Because of this complexity, humans have only been able to harness the power of proteins by making very small changes to the amino acid sequences of the proteins we've found in nature.

Frequently Occurring Word Combinations

ngrams of length 2

collocation frequency
protein design 7
amino acid 6
amino acids 5
immune system 3
acid sequences 3
protein folding 3
synthetic gene 3
total number 3
remarkable biological 2
acid sequence 2
stone age 2
computational protein 2
challenges today 2
designed protein 2
vaccine candidates 2
design revolution 2
bell laboratories 2
immune cells 2

ngrams of length 3

collocation frequency
amino acid sequences 3
amino acid sequence 2
protein design revolution 2

Important Words

  1. acid
  2. acids
  3. adopt
  4. amino
  5. chain
  6. completely
  7. complexity
  8. encodes
  9. folding
  10. functions
  11. gene
  12. genes
  13. genome
  14. hard
  15. harness
  16. humans
  17. letter
  18. making
  19. nature
  20. picture
  21. power
  22. problem
  23. protein
  24. proteins
  25. remarkable
  26. sequence
  27. sequences
  28. shapes
  29. single
  30. small
  31. structures
  32. top
  33. translation