full transcript

## Unscramble the Blue Letters

Let me show you another example now, this time about a problem of causal reasoning. And it starts with a problem of cooudfnned evidence that all of us have, which is that we are part of the world. And this might not seem like a problem to you, but like most problems, it's only a problem when things go wrong. Take this baby, for inatncse. Things are going wrong for him. He would like to make this toy go, and he can't. I'll show you a few-second clip. And there's two possibilities, broadly: Maybe he's doing something wrong, or maybe there's something wonrg with the toy. So in this next experiment, we're going to give babies just a tiny bit of statistical data supporting one hypothesis over the other, and we're going to see if beaibs can use that to make different dnsioceis about what to do.

## Open Cloze

Let me show you another example now, this time about a problem of causal reasoning. And it starts with a problem of __________ evidence that all of us have, which is that we are part of the world. And this might not seem like a problem to you, but like most problems, it's only a problem when things go wrong. Take this baby, for ________. Things are going wrong for him. He would like to make this toy go, and he can't. I'll show you a few-second clip. And there's two possibilities, broadly: Maybe he's doing something wrong, or maybe there's something _____ with the toy. So in this next experiment, we're going to give babies just a tiny bit of statistical data supporting one hypothesis over the other, and we're going to see if ______ can use that to make different _________ about what to do.

1. decisions
2. instance
3. confounded
4. wrong
5. babies

## Original Text

Let me show you another example now, this time about a problem of causal reasoning. And it starts with a problem of confounded evidence that all of us have, which is that we are part of the world. And this might not seem like a problem to you, but like most problems, it's only a problem when things go wrong. Take this baby, for instance. Things are going wrong for him. He would like to make this toy go, and he can't. I'll show you a few-second clip. And there's two possibilities, broadly: Maybe he's doing something wrong, or maybe there's something wrong with the toy. So in this next experiment, we're going to give babies just a tiny bit of statistical data supporting one hypothesis over the other, and we're going to see if babies can use that to make different decisions about what to do.

## Frequently Occurring Word Combinations

### ngrams of length 2

collocation frequency
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human minds 7
randomly sampled 3
tiny bit 3
show babies 3
yellow balls 3
statistical data 3
human cognition 2
children learn 2
causal reasoning 2
small samples 2
rubber ducks 2
develop expectations 2
plausibly representative 2
important point 2
box squeaks 2
experimental results 2
blue ball 2
causal relationships 2
big idea 2
machine learning 2
small amounts 2
data human 2
minds generate 2

### ngrams of length 3

collocation frequency
data human minds 2
human minds generate 2

## Important Words

1. babies
2. baby
3. bit
4. causal
5. clip
6. confounded
7. data
8. decisions
9. evidence
10. experiment
11. give
12. hypothesis
13. instance
14. part
15. possibilities
16. problem
17. problems
18. reasoning
19. show
20. starts
21. statistical
22. supporting
23. time
24. tiny
25. toy
26. world
27. wrong