full transcript

From the Ted Talk by Malcolm Gladwell: The unheard story of David and Goliath

Unscramble the Blue Letters

Well, let's sratt there with the psahre "All David has is this sling," because that's the first mistake that we make. In acninet warfare, there are three kinds of warriors. There's cavalry, men on horseback and with chariots. There's heavy infantry, which are foot soldiers, armed foot soldiers with swords and shields and some kind of armor. And there's artillery, and artillery are archers, but, more importantly, silegrns. And a slinger is someone who has a leather puoch with two long cords attached to it, and they put a projectile, either a rock or a lead ball, inside the pouch, and they whirl it around like this and they let one of the crods go, and the effect is to send the projectile forward towards its target. That's what David has, and it's important to urstneandd that that sinlg is not a slingshot. It's not this, right? It's not a child's toy. It's in fact an incredibly devastating weapon. When David rolls it around like this, he's turning the sling around probably at six or seven revolutions per second, and that means that when the rock is released, it's going forward really fast, probably 35 merets per second. That's substantially faster than a baseball thrown by even the finest of baseball pitchers. More than that, the stones in the Valley of Elah were not normal rocks. They were barium slaphtue, which are rocks twice the dsnteiy of normal stones. If you do the calculations on the bciasltils, on the stopping power of the rock fired from David's sling, it's roughly equal to the stopping power of a [.45 caliber] handgun. This is an incredibly devastating woapen. acuaccry, we know from historical redcors that slingers — experienced slingers could hit and maim or even kill a target at distances of up to 200 yards. From medieval tptarieses, we know that slingers were capable of hitting bidrs in flight. They were ibrecildny accurate. When David lines up — and he's not 200 yards away from Goliath, he's quite close to Goliath — when he lnies up and freis that thing at Goliath, he has every intention and every expectation of being able to hit Goliath at his most vulnerable spot between his eyes. If you go back over the history of ancient warfare, you will find time and time again that slingers were the dsceiive factor against infranty in one kind of battle or another.

Open Cloze

Well, let's _____ there with the ______ "All David has is this sling," because that's the first mistake that we make. In _______ warfare, there are three kinds of warriors. There's cavalry, men on horseback and with chariots. There's heavy infantry, which are foot soldiers, armed foot soldiers with swords and shields and some kind of armor. And there's artillery, and artillery are archers, but, more importantly, ________. And a slinger is someone who has a leather _____ with two long cords attached to it, and they put a projectile, either a rock or a lead ball, inside the pouch, and they whirl it around like this and they let one of the _____ go, and the effect is to send the projectile forward towards its target. That's what David has, and it's important to __________ that that _____ is not a slingshot. It's not this, right? It's not a child's toy. It's in fact an incredibly devastating weapon. When David rolls it around like this, he's turning the sling around probably at six or seven revolutions per second, and that means that when the rock is released, it's going forward really fast, probably 35 ______ per second. That's substantially faster than a baseball thrown by even the finest of baseball pitchers. More than that, the stones in the Valley of Elah were not normal rocks. They were barium ________, which are rocks twice the _______ of normal stones. If you do the calculations on the __________, on the stopping power of the rock fired from David's sling, it's roughly equal to the stopping power of a [.45 caliber] handgun. This is an incredibly devastating ______. ________, we know from historical _______ that slingers — experienced slingers could hit and maim or even kill a target at distances of up to 200 yards. From medieval __________, we know that slingers were capable of hitting _____ in flight. They were __________ accurate. When David lines up — and he's not 200 yards away from Goliath, he's quite close to Goliath — when he _____ up and _____ that thing at Goliath, he has every intention and every expectation of being able to hit Goliath at his most vulnerable spot between his eyes. If you go back over the history of ancient warfare, you will find time and time again that slingers were the ________ factor against ________ in one kind of battle or another.

Solution

  1. density
  2. fires
  3. lines
  4. ballistics
  5. slingers
  6. phrase
  7. meters
  8. decisive
  9. cords
  10. weapon
  11. sling
  12. tapestries
  13. understand
  14. accuracy
  15. pouch
  16. infantry
  17. ancient
  18. records
  19. birds
  20. start
  21. incredibly
  22. sulphate

Original Text

Well, let's start there with the phrase "All David has is this sling," because that's the first mistake that we make. In ancient warfare, there are three kinds of warriors. There's cavalry, men on horseback and with chariots. There's heavy infantry, which are foot soldiers, armed foot soldiers with swords and shields and some kind of armor. And there's artillery, and artillery are archers, but, more importantly, slingers. And a slinger is someone who has a leather pouch with two long cords attached to it, and they put a projectile, either a rock or a lead ball, inside the pouch, and they whirl it around like this and they let one of the cords go, and the effect is to send the projectile forward towards its target. That's what David has, and it's important to understand that that sling is not a slingshot. It's not this, right? It's not a child's toy. It's in fact an incredibly devastating weapon. When David rolls it around like this, he's turning the sling around probably at six or seven revolutions per second, and that means that when the rock is released, it's going forward really fast, probably 35 meters per second. That's substantially faster than a baseball thrown by even the finest of baseball pitchers. More than that, the stones in the Valley of Elah were not normal rocks. They were barium sulphate, which are rocks twice the density of normal stones. If you do the calculations on the ballistics, on the stopping power of the rock fired from David's sling, it's roughly equal to the stopping power of a [.45 caliber] handgun. This is an incredibly devastating weapon. Accuracy, we know from historical records that slingers — experienced slingers could hit and maim or even kill a target at distances of up to 200 yards. From medieval tapestries, we know that slingers were capable of hitting birds in flight. They were incredibly accurate. When David lines up — and he's not 200 yards away from Goliath, he's quite close to Goliath — when he lines up and fires that thing at Goliath, he has every intention and every expectation of being able to hit Goliath at his most vulnerable spot between his eyes. If you go back over the history of ancient warfare, you will find time and time again that slingers were the decisive factor against infantry in one kind of battle or another.

Frequently Occurring Word Combinations

ngrams of length 2

collocation frequency
coastal plain 5
shepherd boy 4
mountain range 3
mightiest warrior 3
area called 2
giant sees 2
vulnerable spot 2
incredibly devastating 2
devastating weapon 2
stopping power 2
mighty warrior 2
valley floor 2

ngrams of length 3

collocation frequency
incredibly devastating weapon 2

Important Words

  1. accuracy
  2. accurate
  3. ancient
  4. archers
  5. armed
  6. armor
  7. artillery
  8. attached
  9. ball
  10. ballistics
  11. barium
  12. baseball
  13. battle
  14. birds
  15. calculations
  16. caliber
  17. capable
  18. cavalry
  19. chariots
  20. close
  21. cords
  22. david
  23. decisive
  24. density
  25. devastating
  26. distances
  27. effect
  28. elah
  29. equal
  30. expectation
  31. experienced
  32. eyes
  33. fact
  34. factor
  35. fast
  36. faster
  37. find
  38. finest
  39. fired
  40. fires
  41. flight
  42. foot
  43. goliath
  44. handgun
  45. heavy
  46. historical
  47. history
  48. hit
  49. hitting
  50. horseback
  51. important
  52. importantly
  53. incredibly
  54. infantry
  55. intention
  56. kill
  57. kind
  58. kinds
  59. lead
  60. leather
  61. lines
  62. long
  63. maim
  64. means
  65. medieval
  66. men
  67. meters
  68. mistake
  69. normal
  70. phrase
  71. pitchers
  72. pouch
  73. power
  74. projectile
  75. put
  76. records
  77. released
  78. revolutions
  79. rock
  80. rocks
  81. rolls
  82. roughly
  83. send
  84. shields
  85. sling
  86. slinger
  87. slingers
  88. slingshot
  89. soldiers
  90. spot
  91. start
  92. stones
  93. stopping
  94. substantially
  95. sulphate
  96. swords
  97. tapestries
  98. target
  99. thrown
  100. time
  101. toy
  102. turning
  103. understand
  104. valley
  105. vulnerable
  106. warfare
  107. warriors
  108. weapon
  109. whirl
  110. yards