full transcript

From the Ted Talk by Penelope Boston: There might just be life on Mars

Unscramble the Blue Letters

This is very unusual for caves. In some of the other amazing caves that we work in — this is in Lechuguilla cave in New Mexico near Carlsbad, and this is one of the most famous caves in the world. It's 115 miles of mapped passage, it's pristine, it has no natural oipenng and it's a gigantic biological, geo-microbiological lrbaatoroy. In this cave, great areas are covered by this reddish material that you see here, and also these enomours crystals of selenite that you can see dngilnag down. This stuff is produced biologically. This is the breakdown pdourct of the bedrock, that organisms are busy mhcinnug their way through. They take iron and manganese minerals within the bedrock and they oxidize them. And every time they do that, they get a tiny little packet of energy. And that tiny little packet of enegry is what they use, then, to run their life preossces. Interestingly enough, they also do this with uranium and chromium, and various other txoic metals.

Open Cloze

This is very unusual for caves. In some of the other amazing caves that we work in — this is in Lechuguilla cave in New Mexico near Carlsbad, and this is one of the most famous caves in the world. It's 115 miles of mapped passage, it's pristine, it has no natural _______ and it's a gigantic biological, geo-microbiological __________. In this cave, great areas are covered by this reddish material that you see here, and also these ________ crystals of selenite that you can see ________ down. This stuff is produced biologically. This is the breakdown _______ of the bedrock, that organisms are busy ________ their way through. They take iron and manganese minerals within the bedrock and they oxidize them. And every time they do that, they get a tiny little packet of energy. And that tiny little packet of ______ is what they use, then, to run their life _________. Interestingly enough, they also do this with uranium and chromium, and various other _____ metals.

Solution

  1. laboratory
  2. energy
  3. munching
  4. processes
  5. toxic
  6. product
  7. dangling
  8. opening
  9. enormous

Original Text

This is very unusual for caves. In some of the other amazing caves that we work in — this is in Lechuguilla cave in New Mexico near Carlsbad, and this is one of the most famous caves in the world. It's 115 miles of mapped passage, it's pristine, it has no natural opening and it's a gigantic biological, geo-microbiological laboratory. In this cave, great areas are covered by this reddish material that you see here, and also these enormous crystals of selenite that you can see dangling down. This stuff is produced biologically. This is the breakdown product of the bedrock, that organisms are busy munching their way through. They take iron and manganese minerals within the bedrock and they oxidize them. And every time they do that, they get a tiny little packet of energy. And that tiny little packet of energy is what they use, then, to run their life processes. Interestingly enough, they also do this with uranium and chromium, and various other toxic metals.

Frequently Occurring Word Combinations

ngrams of length 2

collocation frequency
solar system 4
dozen years 3
find life 2
natural outgrowth 2
planetary systems 2
week celebration 2
potential life 2

Important Words

  1. amazing
  2. areas
  3. bedrock
  4. biological
  5. biologically
  6. breakdown
  7. busy
  8. carlsbad
  9. cave
  10. caves
  11. chromium
  12. covered
  13. crystals
  14. dangling
  15. energy
  16. enormous
  17. famous
  18. gigantic
  19. great
  20. interestingly
  21. iron
  22. laboratory
  23. lechuguilla
  24. life
  25. manganese
  26. mapped
  27. material
  28. metals
  29. mexico
  30. miles
  31. minerals
  32. munching
  33. natural
  34. opening
  35. organisms
  36. oxidize
  37. packet
  38. passage
  39. pristine
  40. processes
  41. produced
  42. product
  43. reddish
  44. run
  45. selenite
  46. stuff
  47. time
  48. tiny
  49. toxic
  50. unusual
  51. uranium
  52. work
  53. world