full transcript

From the Ted Talk by Dean Kamen: To invent is to give

Unscramble the Blue Letters

As you pointed out, every time you come here, you learn something. This morning, the world's experts from I guess three or four different companies on building seats, I think concluded that ultimately, the solution is, people shouldn't sit down. I could have told them that. (Laughter) Yesterday, the automotive guys gave us some new insights. They poietnd out that, I believe it was between 30 and 50 years from today, they will be steering cars by wire, without all that mechanical sfutf. (Laughter) That's reassuring. (Applause) They then pointed out that there'd be, sort of, the other controls by wire, to get rid of all that maeacinhcl stuff. That's pretty good, but why not get rid of the wires? Then you don't need anything to cotrnol the car, except thinking about it. I would love to talk about the technology, and sometime, in what's past the 15 minutes, I'll be hppay to talk to all the techno-geeks around here about what's in here. But if I had one thing to say about this, before we get to first, it would be that from the time we started building this, the big idea wasn't the technology. It really was a big idea in technology when we started applying it in the iBOT for the disabled community. The big idea here is, I think, a new piece of a sloutoin to a fairly big problem in torripotasntan. And maybe to put that in perspective: there's so much data on this, I'll be happy to give it to you in different forms. You never know what strekis the fancy of whom, but everybody is perfectly willing to believe the car changed the world. And Henry Ford, just about 100 years ago, started cranking out Model Ts. What I don't think most people think about is the cxotnet of how technology is applied. For instance, in that time, 91 percent of America lived either on farms or in small towns. So, the car — the horseless carriage that replaced the horse and carriage — was a big deal; it went twice as fast as a horse and carriage. It was half as long. And it was an einaovemnrntl improvement, because, for instance, in 1903 they outlawed horses and buggies in downtown mthtnaaan, because you can imagine what the roads look like when you have a million horses, and a million of them urinating and doing other things, and the typhoid and other problems created were almost unimaginable. So the car was the clean environmental alternative to a horse and buggy. It also was a way for people to get from their farm to a farm, or their farm to a town, or from a town to a city. It all made sense, with 91 pecernt of the people living there. By the 1950s, we started connecting all the towns together with what a lot of people claim is the eighth wonder of the world, the highway system. And it is certainly a wonder. And by the way, as I take shots at old technologies, I want to assure everybody, and particularly the automotive industry — who's been very supportive of us — that I don't think this in any way competes with airplanes, or cars. But think about where the world is today. 50 percent of the gblaol population now lives in cities. That's 3.2 billion pelpoe. We've solved all the transportation problems that have changed the world to get it to where we are today. 500 years ago, sailing spihs settard getting rliaelbe enough; we found a new continent. 150 years ago, locomotives got efficient enough, saetm power, that we tneurd the continent into a country. Over the last hundred years, we started building cars, and then over the 50 years we've connected every city to every other city in an extraordinarily efficient way, and we have a very high satrndad of living as a consequence of that. But during that etrine process, more and more people have been born, and more and more people are moving to cities. China alone is going to move four to six hundred million people into cities in the next dedace and a half. And so, nobody, I think, would aurge that airplanes, in the last 50 years, have turned the continent and the cuortny now into a ngohriboohed. And if you just look at how technology has been applied, we've solved all the long-range, high-speed, high-volume, large-weight pmbloers of moving things around. Nobody would want to give them up. And I certainly wouldn't want to give up my airplane, or my hloteecipr, or my Humvee, or my Porsche. I love them all. I don't keep any of them in my lvinig room. The fact is, the last mile is the problem, and half the world now lives in dense cities. And people senpd, depending on who they are, between 90 and 95 percent of their eerngy getting around on foot. I think there's — I don't know what data would impress you, but how about, 43 percent of the refeind fuel prcudoed in the world is cuosmend by cars in metropolitan areas in the United States. Three moliiln people die every year in cities due to bad air, and almost all putlraitace pollution on this planet is produced by transportation devices, particularly sitting in cities. And again, I say that not to attack any industry, I think — I really do — I love my airplane, and cars on hihaywgs mvinog 60 miles an hour are extraordinarily efficient, both from an engineering point of view, an energy consumption point of view, and a utility point of view. And we all love our cars, and I do. The problem is, you get into the city and you want to go four blocks, it's neither fun nor efficient nor productive. It's not sustainable. If — in chnia, in the year 1998, 417 million people used bicycles; 1.7 million people used cars. If five percent of that population became, quote, middle calss, and watned to go the way we've gone in the last hundred yreas at the same time that 50 percent of their population are moving into ceitis of the size and density of Manhattan, every six weeks — it isn't sustainable environmentally; it isn't sabtnlaisue emoclanlociy — there just ain't enough oil — and it's not sustainable politically. I mean, what are we fgntiihg over right now? We can make it complicated, but what's the world fighting over right now? So it seemed to me that somebody had to work on that last mile, and it was dumb luck. We were working on itobs, but once we made this, we innltstay decided it could be a great alternative to jet skis. You don't need the water. Or snowmobiles. You don't need the snow. Or skiing. It's just fun, and people love to move around doing fun things. And every one of those industries, by the way — just golf carts alone is a multi-billion-dollar iudtsnry. But rather than go license this off, which is what we normally do, it seemed to me that if we put all our effort not into the technology, but into an udnreastdning of a world that's solved all its other problems, but has somehow come to apcect that cities — which, right back from ancient Greece on, were menat to walk around, cities that were architected and built for people — now have a footprint that, while we've solved every other transportation polbrem — and it's like Moore's law. I mean, look at the time it took to cross a ctnnoniet in a Conestoga wagon, then on a railroad, then an aiplarne. Every other form of transportation's been improved. In 5,000 years, we've gone backwards in getting around cities. They've gotten bigger; they're spread out. The most enxepisve real estate on this panlet in every city — Wilshire Boulevard, or Fifth Avenue, or Tokyo, or Paris — the most expensive real estate is their downtowns. 65 percent of the landmass of our cities are parked cars. The 20 largest cities in the world. So you wonder, what if cities could give to their pedestrians what we take for granted as we now go between cities? What if you could make them fun, attractive, clean, environmentally friendly? What if it would make it a little bit more palatable to have access via this, as that last link to mass tniasrt, to get out to your cars so we can all live in the suburbs and use our cars the way we want, and then have our cities ezegnried again? We thought it would be really neat to do that, and one of the problems we really were worried about is: how do we get legal on the sdiwelak? Because tlcchneilay I've got motors; I've got wheels — I'm a motor vehicle. I don't look like a motor vceilhe. I have the same footprint as a pedestrian; I have the same unique capability to deal with other pedestrians in a cdwroed space. I took this down to Ground Zero, and knocked my way through crowds for an hour. I'm a ptreasiedn. But the law typically lags technology by a generation or two, and if we get told we don't belong on the sidewalk, we have two choices. We're a recreational vehicle that doesn't really matter, and I don't spend my time doing that kind of stuff. Or maybe we should be out in the setert in front of a gehorynud bus or a vehicle. We've been so cronecned about that, we went to the Postmaster geenarl of the United stteas, as the first person we ever showed on the outside, and said, "Put your people on it. Everybody trusts their postman. And they belong on the sidewalks, and they'll use it seriously." He agreed. We went to a nemubr of police dmeterptnas that want their police officers back in the neighborhood on the beat, carrying 70 pounds of stuff. They love it. And I can't believe a policeman is going to give themselves a ticket. (Laughter) So we've been working really, really hard, but we knew that the thconloegy would not be as hard to develop as an attitude about what's important, and how to apply the technology. We went out and we found some visionary people with enough money to let us design and build these things, and in hopefully enough time to get them accepted. So, I'm happy, really, I am happy to talk about this technology as much as you want. And yes, it's really fun, and yes, you should all go out and try it. But if I could ask you to do one thing, it's not to think about it as a piece of technology, but just imagine that, although we all understand somehow that it's reasblonae that we use our 4,000-pound maniche, which can go 60 miles an hour, that can bring you everywhere you want to go, and somehow it's also what we used for the last mile, and it's boerkn, and it doesn't work. One of the more exciting things that occurred to us about why it might get accepted, happened out here in California. A few weeks ago, after we launched it, we were here with a news crew on Venice Beach, zipping up and back, and he's marveling at the technology, and meanwhile bicycles are zpiipng by, and sdoaeebrrakts are zipping by, and a little old lady — I mean, if you looked in the dictionary, a little old lady — came by me — and now that I'm on this, I'm the height of a normal aludt now — and she just stops, and the camera is there, and she looks up at me and says, "Can I try that?" And what was I — you know, how are you going to say anything? And so I said, "Sure." So I get off, and she gets on, and with a little bit of the usual, ah, then she tnurs around, and she goes about 20 feet, and she turns back around, and she's all smiles. And she comes back to me and she stops, and she says, "Finally, they made something for us." And the cremaa is looking down at her. I'm thinking, "Wow, that was great — (Laughter) — please lady, don't say another word." (Laughter) And the camera is down at her, and this guy has to put the microphone in her face, said, "What do you mean by that?" And I figured, "It's all over now," and she looks up and she says, "Well," she's still watching these guys go; she says, "I can't ride a bike," no, she says, "I can't use a skateboard, and I've never used roller blades," she knew them by name; she says, "And it's been 50 years since I rode a bicycle." Then she looks up, she's looking up, and she says, "And I'm 81 years old, and I don't drive a car anymore. I still have to get to the store, and I can't carry a lot of things." And it sndludey oreccurd to me, that among my many feras, were not just that the bureaucracy and the regulators and the legislators might not get it — it was that, fundamentally, you believe there's pressure among the people not to idavne the most precious little bit of sacpe left, the sidewalks in these cities. When you look at the 36 inches of legal requirement for sidewalk, then the eight foot for the peakrd car, then the three lanes, and then the other eight feet — it's — that little piece is all that's there. But she looks up and says this, and it occurs to me, well, kids aren't going to mind these things, and they don't vote, and business people and then young adults aren't going to mind these things — they're pretty cool — so I geuss slbinlaluimy I was worried that it's the older population that's going to worry. So, having seen this, and having wrreoid about it for eight years, the first thing I do is pick up my phone and ask our marketing and regulatory guys, call AARP, get an appointment right away. We've got to show them this thing. And they took it to Washington; they showed them; and they're going to be involved now, watching how these things get aoesrbbd in a number of cities, like Atlanta, where we're doing tialrs to see if it really can, in fact, help re-energize their downtown. (Applause) The bottom line is, whether you believe the United Nations, or any of the other think tanks — in the next 20 years, all human population growth on this planet will be in cities. In Asia alone, it will be over a billion people. They learned to start with cell phones. They didn't have to take the 100-year trip we took. They start at the top of the technology food cihan. We've got to start building cities and human environments where a 150-pound preson can go a couple of miles in a dense, rich, green-space enionvmrnet, without being in a 4,000-pound machine to do it. Cars were not meant for plarelal parking; they're woedfunrl machines to go between cities, but just think about it: we've solved all the long-range, high-speed problems. The Greeks went from the theater of Dionysus to the phraneton in their sandals. You do it in your sneakers. Not much has changed. If this thing goes only three times as fast as walking — three tmeis — a 30-minute walk becomes 10 minutes. Your choice, when living in a city, if it's now 10 mitneus — because at 30 minutes you want an aetnrailtve, whether it's a bus, a train — we've got to bulid an infrastructure — a light rail — or you're going to keep parking those cars. But if you could put a pin in most cities, and igimane how far you could, if you had the time, walk in one half-hour, it's the city. If you could make it fun, and make it eight or 10 minutes, you can't find your car, un-park your car, move your car, re-park your car and go somewhere; you can't get to a cab or a sawbuy. We could change the way people allocate their resources, the way this planet uses its energy, make it more fun. And we're hoping to some extent history will say we were right. That's Segway. This is a Stirling cycle engine; this had been confused by a lot of things we're doing. This little beast, right now, is producing a few hundred watts of ecectritliy. Yes, it could be attached to this, and yes, on a kilogram of propane, you could drive from New York to Boston if you so choose. Perhaps more interesting about this little engine is it'll burn any fuel, because some of you might be skeptical about the capability of this to have an impact, where most of the world you can't simply plug into your 120-volt outlet. We've been wrinokg on this, actually, as an alternative energy source, starting way back with Johnson & Johnson, to run an iBOT, because the best batteries you could get — 10 watt-hours per kilogram in lead, 20 watt-hours per kilogram nickel-cadmium, 40 watt-hours per kilogram in nickel-metal hryddie, 60 watt-hours per kilogram in lthiuim, 8,750 watt-hours of energy in every kilogram of propane or gasoline — which is why nobody dveirs electric cars. But, in any event, if you can burn it with the same efficiency — because it's external combustion — as your kitchen stove, if you can burn any fuel, it turns out to be ptetry neat. It makes just enough electricity to, for instance, do this, which at night is enough electricity, in the rest of the wolrd, as Mr. Holly — Dr. hlloy — pointed out, can run computers and a lhigt bulb. But more interestingly, the thermodynamics of this say, you're never going to get more than 20 percent efficiency. It doesn't matter much — it says if you get 200 wttas of electricity, you'll get 700 or 800 watts of heat. If you wanted to boil weatr and re-condense it at a rate of 10 gallons an hour, it takes about 25, a little over 25.3 kilowatt — 25,000 watts of continuous power — to do it. That's so much energy, you couldn't afford to desalinate or clean water in this country that way. Certainly, in the rest of the world, your choice is to devastate the place, turning everything that will burn into heat, or dnirk the water that's available. The number one cause of death on this planet among humans is bad water. dnnpedieg on whose numbers you believe, it's between 60 and 85,000 people per day. We don't need sophisticated heart trnsnplaats around the world. We need water. And women shouldn't have to spend four hours a day looking for it, or watching their kids die. We figured out how to put a vapor-compression distiller on this thing, with a counter-flow heat eenghaxcr to take the watse heat, then using a little bit of the electricity control that process, and for 450 watts, which is a little more than half of its waste heat, it will make 10 glanols an hour of distilled water from anything that comes into it to cool it. So if we put this box on here in a few years, could we have a solution to transportation, electricity, and communication, and maybe drinkable water in a sustainable pkacage that weighs 60 pounds? I don't know, but we'll try it. I better shut up. (Applause)

Open Cloze

As you pointed out, every time you come here, you learn something. This morning, the world's experts from I guess three or four different companies on building seats, I think concluded that ultimately, the solution is, people shouldn't sit down. I could have told them that. (Laughter) Yesterday, the automotive guys gave us some new insights. They _______ out that, I believe it was between 30 and 50 years from today, they will be steering cars by wire, without all that mechanical _____. (Laughter) That's reassuring. (Applause) They then pointed out that there'd be, sort of, the other controls by wire, to get rid of all that __________ stuff. That's pretty good, but why not get rid of the wires? Then you don't need anything to _______ the car, except thinking about it. I would love to talk about the technology, and sometime, in what's past the 15 minutes, I'll be _____ to talk to all the techno-geeks around here about what's in here. But if I had one thing to say about this, before we get to first, it would be that from the time we started building this, the big idea wasn't the technology. It really was a big idea in technology when we started applying it in the iBOT for the disabled community. The big idea here is, I think, a new piece of a ________ to a fairly big problem in ______________. And maybe to put that in perspective: there's so much data on this, I'll be happy to give it to you in different forms. You never know what _______ the fancy of whom, but everybody is perfectly willing to believe the car changed the world. And Henry Ford, just about 100 years ago, started cranking out Model Ts. What I don't think most people think about is the _______ of how technology is applied. For instance, in that time, 91 percent of America lived either on farms or in small towns. So, the car — the horseless carriage that replaced the horse and carriage — was a big deal; it went twice as fast as a horse and carriage. It was half as long. And it was an _____________ improvement, because, for instance, in 1903 they outlawed horses and buggies in downtown _________, because you can imagine what the roads look like when you have a million horses, and a million of them urinating and doing other things, and the typhoid and other problems created were almost unimaginable. So the car was the clean environmental alternative to a horse and buggy. It also was a way for people to get from their farm to a farm, or their farm to a town, or from a town to a city. It all made sense, with 91 _______ of the people living there. By the 1950s, we started connecting all the towns together with what a lot of people claim is the eighth wonder of the world, the highway system. And it is certainly a wonder. And by the way, as I take shots at old technologies, I want to assure everybody, and particularly the automotive industry — who's been very supportive of us — that I don't think this in any way competes with airplanes, or cars. But think about where the world is today. 50 percent of the ______ population now lives in cities. That's 3.2 billion ______. We've solved all the transportation problems that have changed the world to get it to where we are today. 500 years ago, sailing _____ _______ getting ________ enough; we found a new continent. 150 years ago, locomotives got efficient enough, _____ power, that we ______ the continent into a country. Over the last hundred years, we started building cars, and then over the 50 years we've connected every city to every other city in an extraordinarily efficient way, and we have a very high ________ of living as a consequence of that. But during that ______ process, more and more people have been born, and more and more people are moving to cities. China alone is going to move four to six hundred million people into cities in the next ______ and a half. And so, nobody, I think, would _____ that airplanes, in the last 50 years, have turned the continent and the _______ now into a ____________. And if you just look at how technology has been applied, we've solved all the long-range, high-speed, high-volume, large-weight ________ of moving things around. Nobody would want to give them up. And I certainly wouldn't want to give up my airplane, or my __________, or my Humvee, or my Porsche. I love them all. I don't keep any of them in my ______ room. The fact is, the last mile is the problem, and half the world now lives in dense cities. And people _____, depending on who they are, between 90 and 95 percent of their ______ getting around on foot. I think there's — I don't know what data would impress you, but how about, 43 percent of the _______ fuel ________ in the world is ________ by cars in metropolitan areas in the United States. Three _______ people die every year in cities due to bad air, and almost all ___________ pollution on this planet is produced by transportation devices, particularly sitting in cities. And again, I say that not to attack any industry, I think — I really do — I love my airplane, and cars on ________ ______ 60 miles an hour are extraordinarily efficient, both from an engineering point of view, an energy consumption point of view, and a utility point of view. And we all love our cars, and I do. The problem is, you get into the city and you want to go four blocks, it's neither fun nor efficient nor productive. It's not sustainable. If — in _____, in the year 1998, 417 million people used bicycles; 1.7 million people used cars. If five percent of that population became, quote, middle _____, and ______ to go the way we've gone in the last hundred _____ at the same time that 50 percent of their population are moving into ______ of the size and density of Manhattan, every six weeks — it isn't sustainable environmentally; it isn't ___________ ____________ — there just ain't enough oil — and it's not sustainable politically. I mean, what are we ________ over right now? We can make it complicated, but what's the world fighting over right now? So it seemed to me that somebody had to work on that last mile, and it was dumb luck. We were working on _____, but once we made this, we _________ decided it could be a great alternative to jet skis. You don't need the water. Or snowmobiles. You don't need the snow. Or skiing. It's just fun, and people love to move around doing fun things. And every one of those industries, by the way — just golf carts alone is a multi-billion-dollar ________. But rather than go license this off, which is what we normally do, it seemed to me that if we put all our effort not into the technology, but into an _____________ of a world that's solved all its other problems, but has somehow come to ______ that cities — which, right back from ancient Greece on, were _____ to walk around, cities that were architected and built for people — now have a footprint that, while we've solved every other transportation _______ — and it's like Moore's law. I mean, look at the time it took to cross a _________ in a Conestoga wagon, then on a railroad, then an ________. Every other form of transportation's been improved. In 5,000 years, we've gone backwards in getting around cities. They've gotten bigger; they're spread out. The most _________ real estate on this ______ in every city — Wilshire Boulevard, or Fifth Avenue, or Tokyo, or Paris — the most expensive real estate is their downtowns. 65 percent of the landmass of our cities are parked cars. The 20 largest cities in the world. So you wonder, what if cities could give to their pedestrians what we take for granted as we now go between cities? What if you could make them fun, attractive, clean, environmentally friendly? What if it would make it a little bit more palatable to have access via this, as that last link to mass _______, to get out to your cars so we can all live in the suburbs and use our cars the way we want, and then have our cities _________ again? We thought it would be really neat to do that, and one of the problems we really were worried about is: how do we get legal on the ________? Because ___________ I've got motors; I've got wheels — I'm a motor vehicle. I don't look like a motor _______. I have the same footprint as a pedestrian; I have the same unique capability to deal with other pedestrians in a _______ space. I took this down to Ground Zero, and knocked my way through crowds for an hour. I'm a __________. But the law typically lags technology by a generation or two, and if we get told we don't belong on the sidewalk, we have two choices. We're a recreational vehicle that doesn't really matter, and I don't spend my time doing that kind of stuff. Or maybe we should be out in the ______ in front of a _________ bus or a vehicle. We've been so _________ about that, we went to the Postmaster _______ of the United ______, as the first person we ever showed on the outside, and said, "Put your people on it. Everybody trusts their postman. And they belong on the sidewalks, and they'll use it seriously." He agreed. We went to a ______ of police ___________ that want their police officers back in the neighborhood on the beat, carrying 70 pounds of stuff. They love it. And I can't believe a policeman is going to give themselves a ticket. (Laughter) So we've been working really, really hard, but we knew that the __________ would not be as hard to develop as an attitude about what's important, and how to apply the technology. We went out and we found some visionary people with enough money to let us design and build these things, and in hopefully enough time to get them accepted. So, I'm happy, really, I am happy to talk about this technology as much as you want. And yes, it's really fun, and yes, you should all go out and try it. But if I could ask you to do one thing, it's not to think about it as a piece of technology, but just imagine that, although we all understand somehow that it's __________ that we use our 4,000-pound _______, which can go 60 miles an hour, that can bring you everywhere you want to go, and somehow it's also what we used for the last mile, and it's ______, and it doesn't work. One of the more exciting things that occurred to us about why it might get accepted, happened out here in California. A few weeks ago, after we launched it, we were here with a news crew on Venice Beach, zipping up and back, and he's marveling at the technology, and meanwhile bicycles are _______ by, and _____________ are zipping by, and a little old lady — I mean, if you looked in the dictionary, a little old lady — came by me — and now that I'm on this, I'm the height of a normal _____ now — and she just stops, and the camera is there, and she looks up at me and says, "Can I try that?" And what was I — you know, how are you going to say anything? And so I said, "Sure." So I get off, and she gets on, and with a little bit of the usual, ah, then she _____ around, and she goes about 20 feet, and she turns back around, and she's all smiles. And she comes back to me and she stops, and she says, "Finally, they made something for us." And the ______ is looking down at her. I'm thinking, "Wow, that was great — (Laughter) — please lady, don't say another word." (Laughter) And the camera is down at her, and this guy has to put the microphone in her face, said, "What do you mean by that?" And I figured, "It's all over now," and she looks up and she says, "Well," she's still watching these guys go; she says, "I can't ride a bike," no, she says, "I can't use a skateboard, and I've never used roller blades," she knew them by name; she says, "And it's been 50 years since I rode a bicycle." Then she looks up, she's looking up, and she says, "And I'm 81 years old, and I don't drive a car anymore. I still have to get to the store, and I can't carry a lot of things." And it ________ ________ to me, that among my many _____, were not just that the bureaucracy and the regulators and the legislators might not get it — it was that, fundamentally, you believe there's pressure among the people not to ______ the most precious little bit of _____ left, the sidewalks in these cities. When you look at the 36 inches of legal requirement for sidewalk, then the eight foot for the ______ car, then the three lanes, and then the other eight feet — it's — that little piece is all that's there. But she looks up and says this, and it occurs to me, well, kids aren't going to mind these things, and they don't vote, and business people and then young adults aren't going to mind these things — they're pretty cool — so I _____ ____________ I was worried that it's the older population that's going to worry. So, having seen this, and having _______ about it for eight years, the first thing I do is pick up my phone and ask our marketing and regulatory guys, call AARP, get an appointment right away. We've got to show them this thing. And they took it to Washington; they showed them; and they're going to be involved now, watching how these things get ________ in a number of cities, like Atlanta, where we're doing ______ to see if it really can, in fact, help re-energize their downtown. (Applause) The bottom line is, whether you believe the United Nations, or any of the other think tanks — in the next 20 years, all human population growth on this planet will be in cities. In Asia alone, it will be over a billion people. They learned to start with cell phones. They didn't have to take the 100-year trip we took. They start at the top of the technology food _____. We've got to start building cities and human environments where a 150-pound ______ can go a couple of miles in a dense, rich, green-space ___________, without being in a 4,000-pound machine to do it. Cars were not meant for ________ parking; they're _________ machines to go between cities, but just think about it: we've solved all the long-range, high-speed problems. The Greeks went from the theater of Dionysus to the _________ in their sandals. You do it in your sneakers. Not much has changed. If this thing goes only three times as fast as walking — three _____ — a 30-minute walk becomes 10 minutes. Your choice, when living in a city, if it's now 10 _______ — because at 30 minutes you want an ___________, whether it's a bus, a train — we've got to _____ an infrastructure — a light rail — or you're going to keep parking those cars. But if you could put a pin in most cities, and _______ how far you could, if you had the time, walk in one half-hour, it's the city. If you could make it fun, and make it eight or 10 minutes, you can't find your car, un-park your car, move your car, re-park your car and go somewhere; you can't get to a cab or a ______. We could change the way people allocate their resources, the way this planet uses its energy, make it more fun. And we're hoping to some extent history will say we were right. That's Segway. This is a Stirling cycle engine; this had been confused by a lot of things we're doing. This little beast, right now, is producing a few hundred watts of ___________. Yes, it could be attached to this, and yes, on a kilogram of propane, you could drive from New York to Boston if you so choose. Perhaps more interesting about this little engine is it'll burn any fuel, because some of you might be skeptical about the capability of this to have an impact, where most of the world you can't simply plug into your 120-volt outlet. We've been _______ on this, actually, as an alternative energy source, starting way back with Johnson & Johnson, to run an iBOT, because the best batteries you could get — 10 watt-hours per kilogram in lead, 20 watt-hours per kilogram nickel-cadmium, 40 watt-hours per kilogram in nickel-metal _______, 60 watt-hours per kilogram in _______, 8,750 watt-hours of energy in every kilogram of propane or gasoline — which is why nobody ______ electric cars. But, in any event, if you can burn it with the same efficiency — because it's external combustion — as your kitchen stove, if you can burn any fuel, it turns out to be ______ neat. It makes just enough electricity to, for instance, do this, which at night is enough electricity, in the rest of the _____, as Mr. Holly — Dr. _____ — pointed out, can run computers and a _____ bulb. But more interestingly, the thermodynamics of this say, you're never going to get more than 20 percent efficiency. It doesn't matter much — it says if you get 200 _____ of electricity, you'll get 700 or 800 watts of heat. If you wanted to boil _____ and re-condense it at a rate of 10 gallons an hour, it takes about 25, a little over 25.3 kilowatt — 25,000 watts of continuous power — to do it. That's so much energy, you couldn't afford to desalinate or clean water in this country that way. Certainly, in the rest of the world, your choice is to devastate the place, turning everything that will burn into heat, or _____ the water that's available. The number one cause of death on this planet among humans is bad water. _________ on whose numbers you believe, it's between 60 and 85,000 people per day. We don't need sophisticated heart ___________ around the world. We need water. And women shouldn't have to spend four hours a day looking for it, or watching their kids die. We figured out how to put a vapor-compression distiller on this thing, with a counter-flow heat _________ to take the _____ heat, then using a little bit of the electricity control that process, and for 450 watts, which is a little more than half of its waste heat, it will make 10 _______ an hour of distilled water from anything that comes into it to cool it. So if we put this box on here in a few years, could we have a solution to transportation, electricity, and communication, and maybe drinkable water in a sustainable _______ that weighs 60 pounds? I don't know, but we'll try it. I better shut up. (Applause)

Solution

  1. broken
  2. airplane
  3. occurred
  4. exchanger
  5. consumed
  6. minutes
  7. living
  8. problem
  9. entire
  10. transplants
  11. context
  12. industry
  13. turns
  14. subliminally
  15. lithium
  16. depending
  17. camera
  18. sustainable
  19. ibots
  20. wanted
  21. times
  22. watts
  23. meant
  24. world
  25. pretty
  26. alternative
  27. manhattan
  28. imagine
  29. trials
  30. waste
  31. standard
  32. sidewalk
  33. country
  34. refined
  35. argue
  36. fears
  37. produced
  38. mechanical
  39. hydride
  40. street
  41. stuff
  42. cities
  43. percent
  44. million
  45. package
  46. drives
  47. build
  48. worried
  49. skateboarders
  50. transportation
  51. energized
  52. happy
  53. spend
  54. neighborhood
  55. machine
  56. planet
  57. global
  58. person
  59. highways
  60. reliable
  61. control
  62. turned
  63. drink
  64. expensive
  65. zipping
  66. pedestrian
  67. suddenly
  68. greyhound
  69. technology
  70. guess
  71. states
  72. decade
  73. number
  74. subway
  75. ships
  76. water
  77. energy
  78. accept
  79. class
  80. instantly
  81. space
  82. environment
  83. adult
  84. years
  85. gallons
  86. departments
  87. steam
  88. parallel
  89. transit
  90. economically
  91. started
  92. fighting
  93. particulate
  94. working
  95. technically
  96. holly
  97. understanding
  98. china
  99. wonderful
  100. vehicle
  101. helicopter
  102. environmental
  103. reasonable
  104. strikes
  105. parked
  106. general
  107. people
  108. absorbed
  109. chain
  110. problems
  111. continent
  112. concerned
  113. invade
  114. parthenon
  115. solution
  116. pointed
  117. electricity
  118. crowded
  119. light
  120. moving

Original Text

As you pointed out, every time you come here, you learn something. This morning, the world's experts from I guess three or four different companies on building seats, I think concluded that ultimately, the solution is, people shouldn't sit down. I could have told them that. (Laughter) Yesterday, the automotive guys gave us some new insights. They pointed out that, I believe it was between 30 and 50 years from today, they will be steering cars by wire, without all that mechanical stuff. (Laughter) That's reassuring. (Applause) They then pointed out that there'd be, sort of, the other controls by wire, to get rid of all that mechanical stuff. That's pretty good, but why not get rid of the wires? Then you don't need anything to control the car, except thinking about it. I would love to talk about the technology, and sometime, in what's past the 15 minutes, I'll be happy to talk to all the techno-geeks around here about what's in here. But if I had one thing to say about this, before we get to first, it would be that from the time we started building this, the big idea wasn't the technology. It really was a big idea in technology when we started applying it in the iBOT for the disabled community. The big idea here is, I think, a new piece of a solution to a fairly big problem in transportation. And maybe to put that in perspective: there's so much data on this, I'll be happy to give it to you in different forms. You never know what strikes the fancy of whom, but everybody is perfectly willing to believe the car changed the world. And Henry Ford, just about 100 years ago, started cranking out Model Ts. What I don't think most people think about is the context of how technology is applied. For instance, in that time, 91 percent of America lived either on farms or in small towns. So, the car — the horseless carriage that replaced the horse and carriage — was a big deal; it went twice as fast as a horse and carriage. It was half as long. And it was an environmental improvement, because, for instance, in 1903 they outlawed horses and buggies in downtown Manhattan, because you can imagine what the roads look like when you have a million horses, and a million of them urinating and doing other things, and the typhoid and other problems created were almost unimaginable. So the car was the clean environmental alternative to a horse and buggy. It also was a way for people to get from their farm to a farm, or their farm to a town, or from a town to a city. It all made sense, with 91 percent of the people living there. By the 1950s, we started connecting all the towns together with what a lot of people claim is the eighth wonder of the world, the highway system. And it is certainly a wonder. And by the way, as I take shots at old technologies, I want to assure everybody, and particularly the automotive industry — who's been very supportive of us — that I don't think this in any way competes with airplanes, or cars. But think about where the world is today. 50 percent of the global population now lives in cities. That's 3.2 billion people. We've solved all the transportation problems that have changed the world to get it to where we are today. 500 years ago, sailing ships started getting reliable enough; we found a new continent. 150 years ago, locomotives got efficient enough, steam power, that we turned the continent into a country. Over the last hundred years, we started building cars, and then over the 50 years we've connected every city to every other city in an extraordinarily efficient way, and we have a very high standard of living as a consequence of that. But during that entire process, more and more people have been born, and more and more people are moving to cities. China alone is going to move four to six hundred million people into cities in the next decade and a half. And so, nobody, I think, would argue that airplanes, in the last 50 years, have turned the continent and the country now into a neighborhood. And if you just look at how technology has been applied, we've solved all the long-range, high-speed, high-volume, large-weight problems of moving things around. Nobody would want to give them up. And I certainly wouldn't want to give up my airplane, or my helicopter, or my Humvee, or my Porsche. I love them all. I don't keep any of them in my living room. The fact is, the last mile is the problem, and half the world now lives in dense cities. And people spend, depending on who they are, between 90 and 95 percent of their energy getting around on foot. I think there's — I don't know what data would impress you, but how about, 43 percent of the refined fuel produced in the world is consumed by cars in metropolitan areas in the United States. Three million people die every year in cities due to bad air, and almost all particulate pollution on this planet is produced by transportation devices, particularly sitting in cities. And again, I say that not to attack any industry, I think — I really do — I love my airplane, and cars on highways moving 60 miles an hour are extraordinarily efficient, both from an engineering point of view, an energy consumption point of view, and a utility point of view. And we all love our cars, and I do. The problem is, you get into the city and you want to go four blocks, it's neither fun nor efficient nor productive. It's not sustainable. If — in China, in the year 1998, 417 million people used bicycles; 1.7 million people used cars. If five percent of that population became, quote, middle class, and wanted to go the way we've gone in the last hundred years at the same time that 50 percent of their population are moving into cities of the size and density of Manhattan, every six weeks — it isn't sustainable environmentally; it isn't sustainable economically — there just ain't enough oil — and it's not sustainable politically. I mean, what are we fighting over right now? We can make it complicated, but what's the world fighting over right now? So it seemed to me that somebody had to work on that last mile, and it was dumb luck. We were working on iBOTs, but once we made this, we instantly decided it could be a great alternative to jet skis. You don't need the water. Or snowmobiles. You don't need the snow. Or skiing. It's just fun, and people love to move around doing fun things. And every one of those industries, by the way — just golf carts alone is a multi-billion-dollar industry. But rather than go license this off, which is what we normally do, it seemed to me that if we put all our effort not into the technology, but into an understanding of a world that's solved all its other problems, but has somehow come to accept that cities — which, right back from ancient Greece on, were meant to walk around, cities that were architected and built for people — now have a footprint that, while we've solved every other transportation problem — and it's like Moore's law. I mean, look at the time it took to cross a continent in a Conestoga wagon, then on a railroad, then an airplane. Every other form of transportation's been improved. In 5,000 years, we've gone backwards in getting around cities. They've gotten bigger; they're spread out. The most expensive real estate on this planet in every city — Wilshire Boulevard, or Fifth Avenue, or Tokyo, or Paris — the most expensive real estate is their downtowns. 65 percent of the landmass of our cities are parked cars. The 20 largest cities in the world. So you wonder, what if cities could give to their pedestrians what we take for granted as we now go between cities? What if you could make them fun, attractive, clean, environmentally friendly? What if it would make it a little bit more palatable to have access via this, as that last link to mass transit, to get out to your cars so we can all live in the suburbs and use our cars the way we want, and then have our cities energized again? We thought it would be really neat to do that, and one of the problems we really were worried about is: how do we get legal on the sidewalk? Because technically I've got motors; I've got wheels — I'm a motor vehicle. I don't look like a motor vehicle. I have the same footprint as a pedestrian; I have the same unique capability to deal with other pedestrians in a crowded space. I took this down to Ground Zero, and knocked my way through crowds for an hour. I'm a pedestrian. But the law typically lags technology by a generation or two, and if we get told we don't belong on the sidewalk, we have two choices. We're a recreational vehicle that doesn't really matter, and I don't spend my time doing that kind of stuff. Or maybe we should be out in the street in front of a Greyhound bus or a vehicle. We've been so concerned about that, we went to the Postmaster General of the United States, as the first person we ever showed on the outside, and said, "Put your people on it. Everybody trusts their postman. And they belong on the sidewalks, and they'll use it seriously." He agreed. We went to a number of police departments that want their police officers back in the neighborhood on the beat, carrying 70 pounds of stuff. They love it. And I can't believe a policeman is going to give themselves a ticket. (Laughter) So we've been working really, really hard, but we knew that the technology would not be as hard to develop as an attitude about what's important, and how to apply the technology. We went out and we found some visionary people with enough money to let us design and build these things, and in hopefully enough time to get them accepted. So, I'm happy, really, I am happy to talk about this technology as much as you want. And yes, it's really fun, and yes, you should all go out and try it. But if I could ask you to do one thing, it's not to think about it as a piece of technology, but just imagine that, although we all understand somehow that it's reasonable that we use our 4,000-pound machine, which can go 60 miles an hour, that can bring you everywhere you want to go, and somehow it's also what we used for the last mile, and it's broken, and it doesn't work. One of the more exciting things that occurred to us about why it might get accepted, happened out here in California. A few weeks ago, after we launched it, we were here with a news crew on Venice Beach, zipping up and back, and he's marveling at the technology, and meanwhile bicycles are zipping by, and skateboarders are zipping by, and a little old lady — I mean, if you looked in the dictionary, a little old lady — came by me — and now that I'm on this, I'm the height of a normal adult now — and she just stops, and the camera is there, and she looks up at me and says, "Can I try that?" And what was I — you know, how are you going to say anything? And so I said, "Sure." So I get off, and she gets on, and with a little bit of the usual, ah, then she turns around, and she goes about 20 feet, and she turns back around, and she's all smiles. And she comes back to me and she stops, and she says, "Finally, they made something for us." And the camera is looking down at her. I'm thinking, "Wow, that was great — (Laughter) — please lady, don't say another word." (Laughter) And the camera is down at her, and this guy has to put the microphone in her face, said, "What do you mean by that?" And I figured, "It's all over now," and she looks up and she says, "Well," she's still watching these guys go; she says, "I can't ride a bike," no, she says, "I can't use a skateboard, and I've never used roller blades," she knew them by name; she says, "And it's been 50 years since I rode a bicycle." Then she looks up, she's looking up, and she says, "And I'm 81 years old, and I don't drive a car anymore. I still have to get to the store, and I can't carry a lot of things." And it suddenly occurred to me, that among my many fears, were not just that the bureaucracy and the regulators and the legislators might not get it — it was that, fundamentally, you believe there's pressure among the people not to invade the most precious little bit of space left, the sidewalks in these cities. When you look at the 36 inches of legal requirement for sidewalk, then the eight foot for the parked car, then the three lanes, and then the other eight feet — it's — that little piece is all that's there. But she looks up and says this, and it occurs to me, well, kids aren't going to mind these things, and they don't vote, and business people and then young adults aren't going to mind these things — they're pretty cool — so I guess subliminally I was worried that it's the older population that's going to worry. So, having seen this, and having worried about it for eight years, the first thing I do is pick up my phone and ask our marketing and regulatory guys, call AARP, get an appointment right away. We've got to show them this thing. And they took it to Washington; they showed them; and they're going to be involved now, watching how these things get absorbed in a number of cities, like Atlanta, where we're doing trials to see if it really can, in fact, help re-energize their downtown. (Applause) The bottom line is, whether you believe the United Nations, or any of the other think tanks — in the next 20 years, all human population growth on this planet will be in cities. In Asia alone, it will be over a billion people. They learned to start with cell phones. They didn't have to take the 100-year trip we took. They start at the top of the technology food chain. We've got to start building cities and human environments where a 150-pound person can go a couple of miles in a dense, rich, green-space environment, without being in a 4,000-pound machine to do it. Cars were not meant for parallel parking; they're wonderful machines to go between cities, but just think about it: we've solved all the long-range, high-speed problems. The Greeks went from the theater of Dionysus to the Parthenon in their sandals. You do it in your sneakers. Not much has changed. If this thing goes only three times as fast as walking — three times — a 30-minute walk becomes 10 minutes. Your choice, when living in a city, if it's now 10 minutes — because at 30 minutes you want an alternative, whether it's a bus, a train — we've got to build an infrastructure — a light rail — or you're going to keep parking those cars. But if you could put a pin in most cities, and imagine how far you could, if you had the time, walk in one half-hour, it's the city. If you could make it fun, and make it eight or 10 minutes, you can't find your car, un-park your car, move your car, re-park your car and go somewhere; you can't get to a cab or a subway. We could change the way people allocate their resources, the way this planet uses its energy, make it more fun. And we're hoping to some extent history will say we were right. That's Segway. This is a Stirling cycle engine; this had been confused by a lot of things we're doing. This little beast, right now, is producing a few hundred watts of electricity. Yes, it could be attached to this, and yes, on a kilogram of propane, you could drive from New York to Boston if you so choose. Perhaps more interesting about this little engine is it'll burn any fuel, because some of you might be skeptical about the capability of this to have an impact, where most of the world you can't simply plug into your 120-volt outlet. We've been working on this, actually, as an alternative energy source, starting way back with Johnson & Johnson, to run an iBOT, because the best batteries you could get — 10 watt-hours per kilogram in lead, 20 watt-hours per kilogram nickel-cadmium, 40 watt-hours per kilogram in nickel-metal hydride, 60 watt-hours per kilogram in lithium, 8,750 watt-hours of energy in every kilogram of propane or gasoline — which is why nobody drives electric cars. But, in any event, if you can burn it with the same efficiency — because it's external combustion — as your kitchen stove, if you can burn any fuel, it turns out to be pretty neat. It makes just enough electricity to, for instance, do this, which at night is enough electricity, in the rest of the world, as Mr. Holly — Dr. Holly — pointed out, can run computers and a light bulb. But more interestingly, the thermodynamics of this say, you're never going to get more than 20 percent efficiency. It doesn't matter much — it says if you get 200 watts of electricity, you'll get 700 or 800 watts of heat. If you wanted to boil water and re-condense it at a rate of 10 gallons an hour, it takes about 25, a little over 25.3 kilowatt — 25,000 watts of continuous power — to do it. That's so much energy, you couldn't afford to desalinate or clean water in this country that way. Certainly, in the rest of the world, your choice is to devastate the place, turning everything that will burn into heat, or drink the water that's available. The number one cause of death on this planet among humans is bad water. Depending on whose numbers you believe, it's between 60 and 85,000 people per day. We don't need sophisticated heart transplants around the world. We need water. And women shouldn't have to spend four hours a day looking for it, or watching their kids die. We figured out how to put a vapor-compression distiller on this thing, with a counter-flow heat exchanger to take the waste heat, then using a little bit of the electricity control that process, and for 450 watts, which is a little more than half of its waste heat, it will make 10 gallons an hour of distilled water from anything that comes into it to cool it. So if we put this box on here in a few years, could we have a solution to transportation, electricity, and communication, and maybe drinkable water in a sustainable package that weighs 60 pounds? I don't know, but we'll try it. I better shut up. (Applause)

Frequently Occurring Word Combinations

ngrams of length 2

collocation frequency
million people 4
big idea 3
mechanical stuff 2
started building 2
billion people 2
expensive real 2
real estate 2
motor vehicle 2

ngrams of length 3

collocation frequency
expensive real estate 2

Important Words

  1. aarp
  2. absorbed
  3. accept
  4. accepted
  5. access
  6. adult
  7. adults
  8. afford
  9. agreed
  10. ah
  11. air
  12. airplane
  13. airplanes
  14. allocate
  15. alternative
  16. america
  17. ancient
  18. anymore
  19. applause
  20. applied
  21. apply
  22. applying
  23. appointment
  24. architected
  25. areas
  26. argue
  27. asia
  28. assure
  29. atlanta
  30. attached
  31. attack
  32. attitude
  33. attractive
  34. automotive
  35. avenue
  36. bad
  37. batteries
  38. beach
  39. beast
  40. beat
  41. belong
  42. bicycle
  43. bicycles
  44. big
  45. bike
  46. billion
  47. bit
  48. blades
  49. blocks
  50. boil
  51. born
  52. boston
  53. bottom
  54. boulevard
  55. box
  56. bring
  57. broken
  58. buggies
  59. buggy
  60. build
  61. building
  62. built
  63. bulb
  64. bureaucracy
  65. burn
  66. bus
  67. business
  68. cab
  69. california
  70. call
  71. camera
  72. capability
  73. car
  74. carriage
  75. carry
  76. carrying
  77. cars
  78. carts
  79. cell
  80. chain
  81. change
  82. changed
  83. china
  84. choice
  85. choices
  86. choose
  87. cities
  88. city
  89. claim
  90. class
  91. clean
  92. combustion
  93. communication
  94. community
  95. companies
  96. competes
  97. complicated
  98. computers
  99. concerned
  100. concluded
  101. conestoga
  102. confused
  103. connected
  104. connecting
  105. consequence
  106. consumed
  107. consumption
  108. context
  109. continent
  110. continuous
  111. control
  112. controls
  113. cool
  114. country
  115. couple
  116. cranking
  117. created
  118. crew
  119. cross
  120. crowded
  121. crowds
  122. cycle
  123. data
  124. day
  125. deal
  126. death
  127. decade
  128. decided
  129. dense
  130. density
  131. departments
  132. depending
  133. desalinate
  134. design
  135. devastate
  136. develop
  137. devices
  138. dictionary
  139. die
  140. dionysus
  141. disabled
  142. distilled
  143. distiller
  144. downtown
  145. downtowns
  146. dr
  147. drink
  148. drinkable
  149. drive
  150. drives
  151. due
  152. dumb
  153. economically
  154. efficiency
  155. efficient
  156. effort
  157. eighth
  158. electric
  159. electricity
  160. energized
  161. energy
  162. engine
  163. engineering
  164. entire
  165. environment
  166. environmental
  167. environmentally
  168. environments
  169. estate
  170. event
  171. exchanger
  172. exciting
  173. expensive
  174. experts
  175. extent
  176. external
  177. extraordinarily
  178. face
  179. fact
  180. fancy
  181. farm
  182. farms
  183. fast
  184. fears
  185. feet
  186. fighting
  187. figured
  188. find
  189. food
  190. foot
  191. footprint
  192. ford
  193. form
  194. forms
  195. friendly
  196. front
  197. fuel
  198. fun
  199. fundamentally
  200. gallons
  201. gasoline
  202. gave
  203. general
  204. generation
  205. give
  206. global
  207. golf
  208. good
  209. granted
  210. great
  211. greece
  212. greeks
  213. greyhound
  214. ground
  215. growth
  216. guess
  217. guy
  218. guys
  219. happened
  220. happy
  221. hard
  222. heart
  223. heat
  224. height
  225. helicopter
  226. henry
  227. high
  228. highway
  229. highways
  230. history
  231. holly
  232. hoping
  233. horse
  234. horseless
  235. horses
  236. hour
  237. hours
  238. human
  239. humans
  240. humvee
  241. hydride
  242. ibot
  243. ibots
  244. idea
  245. imagine
  246. impact
  247. important
  248. impress
  249. improved
  250. improvement
  251. inches
  252. industries
  253. industry
  254. infrastructure
  255. insights
  256. instance
  257. instantly
  258. interesting
  259. interestingly
  260. invade
  261. involved
  262. jet
  263. johnson
  264. kids
  265. kilogram
  266. kilowatt
  267. kind
  268. kitchen
  269. knew
  270. knocked
  271. lady
  272. lags
  273. landmass
  274. lanes
  275. largest
  276. laughter
  277. launched
  278. law
  279. lead
  280. learn
  281. learned
  282. left
  283. legal
  284. legislators
  285. license
  286. light
  287. line
  288. link
  289. lithium
  290. live
  291. lived
  292. lives
  293. living
  294. locomotives
  295. long
  296. looked
  297. lot
  298. love
  299. luck
  300. machine
  301. machines
  302. manhattan
  303. marketing
  304. marveling
  305. mass
  306. matter
  307. meant
  308. mechanical
  309. metropolitan
  310. microphone
  311. middle
  312. mile
  313. miles
  314. million
  315. mind
  316. minutes
  317. model
  318. money
  319. morning
  320. motor
  321. move
  322. moving
  323. nations
  324. neat
  325. neighborhood
  326. news
  327. night
  328. normal
  329. number
  330. numbers
  331. occurred
  332. occurs
  333. officers
  334. oil
  335. older
  336. outlawed
  337. outlet
  338. package
  339. palatable
  340. parallel
  341. paris
  342. parked
  343. parking
  344. parthenon
  345. particulate
  346. pedestrian
  347. pedestrians
  348. people
  349. percent
  350. perfectly
  351. person
  352. phone
  353. phones
  354. pick
  355. piece
  356. pin
  357. place
  358. planet
  359. plug
  360. point
  361. pointed
  362. police
  363. policeman
  364. politically
  365. pollution
  366. population
  367. porsche
  368. postman
  369. postmaster
  370. pounds
  371. power
  372. precious
  373. pressure
  374. pretty
  375. problem
  376. problems
  377. process
  378. produced
  379. producing
  380. productive
  381. propane
  382. put
  383. quote
  384. rail
  385. railroad
  386. rate
  387. real
  388. reasonable
  389. reassuring
  390. recreational
  391. refined
  392. regulators
  393. regulatory
  394. reliable
  395. replaced
  396. requirement
  397. resources
  398. rest
  399. rich
  400. rid
  401. ride
  402. roads
  403. rode
  404. roller
  405. room
  406. run
  407. sailing
  408. sandals
  409. seats
  410. segway
  411. sense
  412. ships
  413. shots
  414. show
  415. showed
  416. shut
  417. sidewalk
  418. sidewalks
  419. simply
  420. sit
  421. sitting
  422. size
  423. skateboard
  424. skateboarders
  425. skeptical
  426. skiing
  427. skis
  428. small
  429. smiles
  430. sneakers
  431. snow
  432. snowmobiles
  433. solution
  434. solved
  435. sophisticated
  436. sort
  437. source
  438. space
  439. spend
  440. spread
  441. standard
  442. start
  443. started
  444. starting
  445. states
  446. steam
  447. steering
  448. stirling
  449. stops
  450. store
  451. stove
  452. street
  453. strikes
  454. stuff
  455. subliminally
  456. suburbs
  457. subway
  458. suddenly
  459. supportive
  460. sustainable
  461. system
  462. takes
  463. talk
  464. tanks
  465. technically
  466. technologies
  467. technology
  468. theater
  469. thermodynamics
  470. thinking
  471. thought
  472. ticket
  473. time
  474. times
  475. today
  476. tokyo
  477. told
  478. top
  479. town
  480. towns
  481. train
  482. transit
  483. transplants
  484. transportation
  485. trials
  486. trip
  487. trusts
  488. ts
  489. turned
  490. turning
  491. turns
  492. typhoid
  493. typically
  494. ultimately
  495. understand
  496. understanding
  497. unimaginable
  498. unique
  499. united
  500. urinating
  501. usual
  502. utility
  503. vehicle
  504. venice
  505. view
  506. visionary
  507. vote
  508. wagon
  509. walk
  510. walking
  511. wanted
  512. waste
  513. watching
  514. water
  515. watts
  516. weeks
  517. weighs
  518. wheels
  519. wilshire
  520. wire
  521. wires
  522. women
  523. wonderful
  524. word
  525. work
  526. working
  527. world
  528. worried
  529. worry
  530. year
  531. years
  532. yesterday
  533. york
  534. young
  535. zipping