full transcript

From the Ted Talk by Craig A. Kohn: What are stem cells?

Unscramble the Blue Letters

Imagine two ppleoe are listening to music. What are the odds that they are listening to the exact same playlist? Probably pretty low. After all, everyone has very different tastes in music. Now, what are the odds that your body will need the exact same mecadil care and teretanmt as another person's body? Even lower. As we go through our lievs, each of us will have very different needs for our own healthcare. Scientists and dcorots are constantly researching ways to make medicine more personalized. One way they are doing this is by researching stem cells. Stem cells are cells that are ueaditneeirntffd, meaning they do not have a specific job or function. While skin cells protect your body, muscle cells contract, and nerve cells send signals, stem cells do not have any specific suurrttecs or functions. Stem cells do have the potential to become all other kinds of cells in your body. Your body uses stem cells to replace worn-out cells when they die. For example, you completely replace the lining of your inientstes every four days. Stem cells beeanth the lining of your intestines replace these cells as they wear out. Scientists hope that stem cells could be used to cetrae a very special kind of personalized medicine in which we could rcapele your own body parts with, well, your own body parts. Stem cell researchers are working hard to find ways in which to use stem cells to create new tissue to replace the parts of ograns that are deaamgd by injury or disease. Using stem clles to replace damaged bodily tssuie is called regenerative medicine. For example, scientists currently use stem cells to treat ptitnaes with bolod diseases such as leukemia. Leukemia is a form of cancer that affects your bone morraw. Bone marrow is the spongy tissue inside your bones where your blood cells are created. In leukemia, some of the cells inside your bone marrow grow uncontrollably, crowding out the healthy stem cells that form your blood cells. Some lemuikea patients can receive a stem cell transplant. These new stem cells will create the blood cells ndeeed by the patient's body. There are actually multiple kinds of stem cells that scientists can use for medical treatments and research. Adult stem cells or tissue-specific stem cells are found in small numbers in most of your body's tissues. Tissue-specific stem cells replace the existing cells in your organs as they wear out and die. Embryonic stem cells are created from leftover embryos that are willingly donated by patients from fertility clinics. Unlike tissue-specific stem cells, embryonic stem cells are pluripotent. This manes that they can be gwron into any kind of tissue in the body. A third kind of stem cells is called induced pluripotent stem cells. These are regular skin, fat, liver, or other cells that scientists have changed to behave like embryonic stem cells. Like eonbiyrmc stem cells, they, too, can become any kind of cell in the body. While scientists and doctors hope to use all of these knids of stem cells to create new tissue to heal your body, they can also use stem cells to help understand how the body works. Scientists can watch stem cells develop into tissue to unerdntasd the mshcnaiemns that the body uses to create new tissue in a controlled and regulated way. stnticesis hope that with more research, they can not only develop sezclpaieid medicine that is specific to your body but also better understand how your body fiunconts, both when it's healthy and when it's not.

Open Cloze

Imagine two ______ are listening to music. What are the odds that they are listening to the exact same playlist? Probably pretty low. After all, everyone has very different tastes in music. Now, what are the odds that your body will need the exact same _______ care and _________ as another person's body? Even lower. As we go through our _____, each of us will have very different needs for our own healthcare. Scientists and _______ are constantly researching ways to make medicine more personalized. One way they are doing this is by researching stem cells. Stem cells are cells that are ________________, meaning they do not have a specific job or function. While skin cells protect your body, muscle cells contract, and nerve cells send signals, stem cells do not have any specific __________ or functions. Stem cells do have the potential to become all other kinds of cells in your body. Your body uses stem cells to replace worn-out cells when they die. For example, you completely replace the lining of your __________ every four days. Stem cells _______ the lining of your intestines replace these cells as they wear out. Scientists hope that stem cells could be used to ______ a very special kind of personalized medicine in which we could _______ your own body parts with, well, your own body parts. Stem cell researchers are working hard to find ways in which to use stem cells to create new tissue to replace the parts of ______ that are _______ by injury or disease. Using stem _____ to replace damaged bodily ______ is called regenerative medicine. For example, scientists currently use stem cells to treat ________ with _____ diseases such as leukemia. Leukemia is a form of cancer that affects your bone ______. Bone marrow is the spongy tissue inside your bones where your blood cells are created. In leukemia, some of the cells inside your bone marrow grow uncontrollably, crowding out the healthy stem cells that form your blood cells. Some ________ patients can receive a stem cell transplant. These new stem cells will create the blood cells ______ by the patient's body. There are actually multiple kinds of stem cells that scientists can use for medical treatments and research. Adult stem cells or tissue-specific stem cells are found in small numbers in most of your body's tissues. Tissue-specific stem cells replace the existing cells in your organs as they wear out and die. Embryonic stem cells are created from leftover embryos that are willingly donated by patients from fertility clinics. Unlike tissue-specific stem cells, embryonic stem cells are pluripotent. This _____ that they can be _____ into any kind of tissue in the body. A third kind of stem cells is called induced pluripotent stem cells. These are regular skin, fat, liver, or other cells that scientists have changed to behave like embryonic stem cells. Like _________ stem cells, they, too, can become any kind of cell in the body. While scientists and doctors hope to use all of these _____ of stem cells to create new tissue to heal your body, they can also use stem cells to help understand how the body works. Scientists can watch stem cells develop into tissue to __________ the ___________ that the body uses to create new tissue in a controlled and regulated way. __________ hope that with more research, they can not only develop ___________ medicine that is specific to your body but also better understand how your body _________, both when it's healthy and when it's not.

Solution

  1. grown
  2. structures
  3. replace
  4. needed
  5. blood
  6. scientists
  7. functions
  8. tissue
  9. mechnanisms
  10. kinds
  11. doctors
  12. create
  13. people
  14. cells
  15. patients
  16. understand
  17. specialized
  18. marrow
  19. organs
  20. treatment
  21. beneath
  22. medical
  23. undifferentiated
  24. means
  25. damaged
  26. lives
  27. leukemia
  28. intestines
  29. embryonic

Original Text

Imagine two people are listening to music. What are the odds that they are listening to the exact same playlist? Probably pretty low. After all, everyone has very different tastes in music. Now, what are the odds that your body will need the exact same medical care and treatment as another person's body? Even lower. As we go through our lives, each of us will have very different needs for our own healthcare. Scientists and doctors are constantly researching ways to make medicine more personalized. One way they are doing this is by researching stem cells. Stem cells are cells that are undifferentiated, meaning they do not have a specific job or function. While skin cells protect your body, muscle cells contract, and nerve cells send signals, stem cells do not have any specific structures or functions. Stem cells do have the potential to become all other kinds of cells in your body. Your body uses stem cells to replace worn-out cells when they die. For example, you completely replace the lining of your intestines every four days. Stem cells beneath the lining of your intestines replace these cells as they wear out. Scientists hope that stem cells could be used to create a very special kind of personalized medicine in which we could replace your own body parts with, well, your own body parts. Stem cell researchers are working hard to find ways in which to use stem cells to create new tissue to replace the parts of organs that are damaged by injury or disease. Using stem cells to replace damaged bodily tissue is called regenerative medicine. For example, scientists currently use stem cells to treat patients with blood diseases such as leukemia. Leukemia is a form of cancer that affects your bone marrow. Bone marrow is the spongy tissue inside your bones where your blood cells are created. In leukemia, some of the cells inside your bone marrow grow uncontrollably, crowding out the healthy stem cells that form your blood cells. Some leukemia patients can receive a stem cell transplant. These new stem cells will create the blood cells needed by the patient's body. There are actually multiple kinds of stem cells that scientists can use for medical treatments and research. Adult stem cells or tissue-specific stem cells are found in small numbers in most of your body's tissues. Tissue-specific stem cells replace the existing cells in your organs as they wear out and die. Embryonic stem cells are created from leftover embryos that are willingly donated by patients from fertility clinics. Unlike tissue-specific stem cells, embryonic stem cells are pluripotent. This means that they can be grown into any kind of tissue in the body. A third kind of stem cells is called induced pluripotent stem cells. These are regular skin, fat, liver, or other cells that scientists have changed to behave like embryonic stem cells. Like embryonic stem cells, they, too, can become any kind of cell in the body. While scientists and doctors hope to use all of these kinds of stem cells to create new tissue to heal your body, they can also use stem cells to help understand how the body works. Scientists can watch stem cells develop into tissue to understand the mechnanisms that the body uses to create new tissue in a controlled and regulated way. Scientists hope that with more research, they can not only develop specialized medicine that is specific to your body but also better understand how your body functions, both when it's healthy and when it's not.

Frequently Occurring Word Combinations

ngrams of length 2

collocation frequency
stem cells 24
embryonic stem 4
bone marrow 3
blood cells 3
scientists hope 2
body parts 2
stem cell 2

ngrams of length 3

collocation frequency
embryonic stem cells 3

Important Words

  1. adult
  2. affects
  3. behave
  4. beneath
  5. blood
  6. bodily
  7. body
  8. bone
  9. bones
  10. called
  11. cancer
  12. care
  13. cell
  14. cells
  15. changed
  16. clinics
  17. completely
  18. constantly
  19. contract
  20. controlled
  21. create
  22. created
  23. crowding
  24. damaged
  25. days
  26. develop
  27. die
  28. disease
  29. diseases
  30. doctors
  31. donated
  32. embryonic
  33. embryos
  34. exact
  35. existing
  36. fat
  37. fertility
  38. find
  39. form
  40. function
  41. functions
  42. grow
  43. grown
  44. hard
  45. heal
  46. healthcare
  47. healthy
  48. hope
  49. imagine
  50. induced
  51. injury
  52. intestines
  53. job
  54. kind
  55. kinds
  56. leftover
  57. leukemia
  58. lining
  59. listening
  60. liver
  61. lives
  62. marrow
  63. meaning
  64. means
  65. mechnanisms
  66. medical
  67. medicine
  68. multiple
  69. muscle
  70. music
  71. needed
  72. nerve
  73. numbers
  74. odds
  75. organs
  76. parts
  77. patients
  78. people
  79. personalized
  80. playlist
  81. pluripotent
  82. potential
  83. pretty
  84. protect
  85. receive
  86. regenerative
  87. regular
  88. regulated
  89. replace
  90. research
  91. researchers
  92. researching
  93. scientists
  94. send
  95. signals
  96. skin
  97. small
  98. special
  99. specialized
  100. specific
  101. spongy
  102. stem
  103. structures
  104. tastes
  105. tissue
  106. tissues
  107. transplant
  108. treat
  109. treatment
  110. treatments
  111. uncontrollably
  112. understand
  113. undifferentiated
  114. watch
  115. ways
  116. wear
  117. willingly
  118. working
  119. works