full transcript

From the Ted Talk by Krishna Sudhir: What happens during a heart attack?

Unscramble the Blue Letters

Approximately 7 million people around the world die from heart attacks every year, and cardiovascular disease, which causes heart attacks and other problems like strokes, is the world's leading killer. So what causes a heart attack? Like all muscles, the heart needs oxygen, and during a heart attack, it can't get enough. Fatty deposits, or plaques, develop on the wlals of our coronary arteries. Those are the vessels that supply oxygenated blood to the heart. These plaques grow as we age, sometimes getting cnuhky, hardened, or elanefmd. Eventually, the pqaeuls can turn into blockages. If one of the plaques ruptures or cracks, a blood clot will form around it in minutes, and a partially closed aterry can become completely blocked. Blood flow is cut off to the criadac muscle and the oxygen-starved cells start to die within several minutes. This is a myocardial infarction, or heart attack. Things can rapidly deteriorate in the absence of treatment. The injured muscle may not be able to pump blood as well, and its rhythm might be thrown off. In the worst case sreianco, a heart attack can cause sudden death. And how do you know that someone is having a heart attack? The most common symptom is chest pain caused by the oxygen-deprived heart muscle. Patients describe it as crnshuig or vice-like. It can radiate to the left arm, jaw, back, or abdomen. But it's not always as sudden and dramatic as it is in the movies. Some people erinexepce nausea or shortness of breath. Symptoms may be less prominent in women and the elderly. For them, weakness and tiredness may be the main signal. And surprisingly, in many plopee, especially those with diabetes, which affects the nerves that carry pain, a heart attack may be silent. If you think that someone might be having a heart attack, the most important thing is to respond quickly. If you have access to egnmecery medical services, call them. They're the fastest way to get to a hospital. Taking aspirin, which thins the blood, and nitroglycerin, which opens up the artery, can help keep the hreat attack from getting worse. In the emergency room, doctors can daginsoe a heart attack. They commonly use an electrocardiogram to measure the heart's electrical activity and a blood test to assess heart muscle damage. The patient is then taken to a high-tech cardiac suite where tetss are done to locate the blockages. Cardiologists can rpeeon the blocked artery by inflating it with a baoolln in a procedure called an angioplasty. Frequently, they also insert a metal or polymer stent that will hold the artery open. More extensive bkglaceos might require coronary artery bypass surgery. Using a piece of vein or artery from another part of the body, heart sgruones can reurtoe blood flow around the blockage. These prrcoudees reestablish circulation to the cardiac mlcuse, restoring heart ftnicoun. Heart attack tentamret is advancing, but prevention is vital. Genetics and lifestyle ftroacs both affect your risk. And the good news is that you can change your lifestyle. Exercise, a healthy diet, and weight loss all lower the risk of heart attacks, whether you've had one before or not. Doctors recommend exercising a few times a week, doing both aerobic activity and strength tniniarg. A heart-healthy diet is low in sugar and saturated fats, which are both lnkeid to heart disease. So what should you eat? Lots of fiebr from vegetables, chicken and fish instead of red meat, whole grains and nuts like walnuts and anlmods all seem to be beefiniacl. A good diet and exercise plan can also keep your weight in a healthy rgane, which will lower your heart acttak risk as well. And of course, medications can also help prevent heart attacks. Doctors often prescribe low-dose aspirin, for example, particularly for patients who've already had a heart attack and for those known to be at high risk. And durgs that help manage risk factors, like high blood pressure, ceortheolsl, and debiates, will make heart attacks less likely, too. Heart attacks may be common, but they don't have to be inevitable. A htlheay diet, avoiding tobacco use, staying fit, and enjoying plenty of sleep and lots of lgtaeuhr all go a long way in making sure your body's most important muscle keeps on beating.

Open Cloze

Approximately 7 million people around the world die from heart attacks every year, and cardiovascular disease, which causes heart attacks and other problems like strokes, is the world's leading killer. So what causes a heart attack? Like all muscles, the heart needs oxygen, and during a heart attack, it can't get enough. Fatty deposits, or plaques, develop on the _____ of our coronary arteries. Those are the vessels that supply oxygenated blood to the heart. These plaques grow as we age, sometimes getting ______, hardened, or ________. Eventually, the _______ can turn into blockages. If one of the plaques ruptures or cracks, a blood clot will form around it in minutes, and a partially closed ______ can become completely blocked. Blood flow is cut off to the _______ muscle and the oxygen-starved cells start to die within several minutes. This is a myocardial infarction, or heart attack. Things can rapidly deteriorate in the absence of treatment. The injured muscle may not be able to pump blood as well, and its rhythm might be thrown off. In the worst case ________, a heart attack can cause sudden death. And how do you know that someone is having a heart attack? The most common symptom is chest pain caused by the oxygen-deprived heart muscle. Patients describe it as ________ or vice-like. It can radiate to the left arm, jaw, back, or abdomen. But it's not always as sudden and dramatic as it is in the movies. Some people __________ nausea or shortness of breath. Symptoms may be less prominent in women and the elderly. For them, weakness and tiredness may be the main signal. And surprisingly, in many ______, especially those with diabetes, which affects the nerves that carry pain, a heart attack may be silent. If you think that someone might be having a heart attack, the most important thing is to respond quickly. If you have access to _________ medical services, call them. They're the fastest way to get to a hospital. Taking aspirin, which thins the blood, and nitroglycerin, which opens up the artery, can help keep the _____ attack from getting worse. In the emergency room, doctors can ________ a heart attack. They commonly use an electrocardiogram to measure the heart's electrical activity and a blood test to assess heart muscle damage. The patient is then taken to a high-tech cardiac suite where _____ are done to locate the blockages. Cardiologists can ______ the blocked artery by inflating it with a _______ in a procedure called an angioplasty. Frequently, they also insert a metal or polymer stent that will hold the artery open. More extensive _________ might require coronary artery bypass surgery. Using a piece of vein or artery from another part of the body, heart ________ can _______ blood flow around the blockage. These __________ reestablish circulation to the cardiac ______, restoring heart ________. Heart attack _________ is advancing, but prevention is vital. Genetics and lifestyle _______ both affect your risk. And the good news is that you can change your lifestyle. Exercise, a healthy diet, and weight loss all lower the risk of heart attacks, whether you've had one before or not. Doctors recommend exercising a few times a week, doing both aerobic activity and strength ________. A heart-healthy diet is low in sugar and saturated fats, which are both ______ to heart disease. So what should you eat? Lots of _____ from vegetables, chicken and fish instead of red meat, whole grains and nuts like walnuts and _______ all seem to be __________. A good diet and exercise plan can also keep your weight in a healthy _____, which will lower your heart ______ risk as well. And of course, medications can also help prevent heart attacks. Doctors often prescribe low-dose aspirin, for example, particularly for patients who've already had a heart attack and for those known to be at high risk. And _____ that help manage risk factors, like high blood pressure, ___________, and ________, will make heart attacks less likely, too. Heart attacks may be common, but they don't have to be inevitable. A _______ diet, avoiding tobacco use, staying fit, and enjoying plenty of sleep and lots of ________ all go a long way in making sure your body's most important muscle keeps on beating.

Solution

  1. linked
  2. balloon
  3. function
  4. plaques
  5. factors
  6. beneficial
  7. artery
  8. enflamed
  9. cholesterol
  10. emergency
  11. attack
  12. range
  13. training
  14. muscle
  15. heart
  16. cardiac
  17. reroute
  18. crushing
  19. walls
  20. treatment
  21. procedures
  22. experience
  23. drugs
  24. chunky
  25. diagnose
  26. fiber
  27. people
  28. surgeons
  29. laughter
  30. tests
  31. blockages
  32. almonds
  33. scenario
  34. diabetes
  35. reopen
  36. healthy

Original Text

Approximately 7 million people around the world die from heart attacks every year, and cardiovascular disease, which causes heart attacks and other problems like strokes, is the world's leading killer. So what causes a heart attack? Like all muscles, the heart needs oxygen, and during a heart attack, it can't get enough. Fatty deposits, or plaques, develop on the walls of our coronary arteries. Those are the vessels that supply oxygenated blood to the heart. These plaques grow as we age, sometimes getting chunky, hardened, or enflamed. Eventually, the plaques can turn into blockages. If one of the plaques ruptures or cracks, a blood clot will form around it in minutes, and a partially closed artery can become completely blocked. Blood flow is cut off to the cardiac muscle and the oxygen-starved cells start to die within several minutes. This is a myocardial infarction, or heart attack. Things can rapidly deteriorate in the absence of treatment. The injured muscle may not be able to pump blood as well, and its rhythm might be thrown off. In the worst case scenario, a heart attack can cause sudden death. And how do you know that someone is having a heart attack? The most common symptom is chest pain caused by the oxygen-deprived heart muscle. Patients describe it as crushing or vice-like. It can radiate to the left arm, jaw, back, or abdomen. But it's not always as sudden and dramatic as it is in the movies. Some people experience nausea or shortness of breath. Symptoms may be less prominent in women and the elderly. For them, weakness and tiredness may be the main signal. And surprisingly, in many people, especially those with diabetes, which affects the nerves that carry pain, a heart attack may be silent. If you think that someone might be having a heart attack, the most important thing is to respond quickly. If you have access to emergency medical services, call them. They're the fastest way to get to a hospital. Taking aspirin, which thins the blood, and nitroglycerin, which opens up the artery, can help keep the heart attack from getting worse. In the emergency room, doctors can diagnose a heart attack. They commonly use an electrocardiogram to measure the heart's electrical activity and a blood test to assess heart muscle damage. The patient is then taken to a high-tech cardiac suite where tests are done to locate the blockages. Cardiologists can reopen the blocked artery by inflating it with a balloon in a procedure called an angioplasty. Frequently, they also insert a metal or polymer stent that will hold the artery open. More extensive blockages might require coronary artery bypass surgery. Using a piece of vein or artery from another part of the body, heart surgeons can reroute blood flow around the blockage. These procedures reestablish circulation to the cardiac muscle, restoring heart function. Heart attack treatment is advancing, but prevention is vital. Genetics and lifestyle factors both affect your risk. And the good news is that you can change your lifestyle. Exercise, a healthy diet, and weight loss all lower the risk of heart attacks, whether you've had one before or not. Doctors recommend exercising a few times a week, doing both aerobic activity and strength training. A heart-healthy diet is low in sugar and saturated fats, which are both linked to heart disease. So what should you eat? Lots of fiber from vegetables, chicken and fish instead of red meat, whole grains and nuts like walnuts and almonds all seem to be beneficial. A good diet and exercise plan can also keep your weight in a healthy range, which will lower your heart attack risk as well. And of course, medications can also help prevent heart attacks. Doctors often prescribe low-dose aspirin, for example, particularly for patients who've already had a heart attack and for those known to be at high risk. And drugs that help manage risk factors, like high blood pressure, cholesterol, and diabetes, will make heart attacks less likely, too. Heart attacks may be common, but they don't have to be inevitable. A healthy diet, avoiding tobacco use, staying fit, and enjoying plenty of sleep and lots of laughter all go a long way in making sure your body's most important muscle keeps on beating.

Frequently Occurring Word Combinations

ngrams of length 2

collocation frequency
heart attack 8
heart attacks 5
blood flow 2
heart muscle 2

Important Words

  1. abdomen
  2. absence
  3. access
  4. activity
  5. advancing
  6. aerobic
  7. affect
  8. affects
  9. age
  10. almonds
  11. angioplasty
  12. approximately
  13. arm
  14. arteries
  15. artery
  16. aspirin
  17. assess
  18. attack
  19. attacks
  20. avoiding
  21. balloon
  22. beating
  23. beneficial
  24. blockage
  25. blockages
  26. blocked
  27. blood
  28. body
  29. breath
  30. bypass
  31. call
  32. called
  33. cardiac
  34. cardiologists
  35. cardiovascular
  36. carry
  37. case
  38. caused
  39. cells
  40. change
  41. chest
  42. chicken
  43. cholesterol
  44. chunky
  45. circulation
  46. closed
  47. clot
  48. common
  49. commonly
  50. completely
  51. coronary
  52. cracks
  53. crushing
  54. cut
  55. damage
  56. death
  57. deposits
  58. describe
  59. deteriorate
  60. develop
  61. diabetes
  62. diagnose
  63. die
  64. diet
  65. disease
  66. doctors
  67. dramatic
  68. drugs
  69. eat
  70. elderly
  71. electrical
  72. electrocardiogram
  73. emergency
  74. enflamed
  75. enjoying
  76. eventually
  77. exercise
  78. exercising
  79. experience
  80. extensive
  81. factors
  82. fastest
  83. fats
  84. fatty
  85. fiber
  86. fish
  87. fit
  88. flow
  89. form
  90. frequently
  91. function
  92. genetics
  93. good
  94. grains
  95. grow
  96. hardened
  97. healthy
  98. heart
  99. high
  100. hold
  101. hospital
  102. important
  103. inevitable
  104. infarction
  105. inflating
  106. injured
  107. insert
  108. jaw
  109. killer
  110. laughter
  111. leading
  112. left
  113. lifestyle
  114. linked
  115. locate
  116. long
  117. loss
  118. lots
  119. main
  120. making
  121. manage
  122. measure
  123. meat
  124. medical
  125. medications
  126. metal
  127. million
  128. minutes
  129. movies
  130. muscle
  131. muscles
  132. myocardial
  133. nausea
  134. nerves
  135. news
  136. nitroglycerin
  137. nuts
  138. open
  139. opens
  140. oxygen
  141. oxygenated
  142. pain
  143. part
  144. partially
  145. patient
  146. patients
  147. people
  148. piece
  149. plan
  150. plaques
  151. plenty
  152. polymer
  153. prescribe
  154. pressure
  155. prevent
  156. prevention
  157. problems
  158. procedure
  159. procedures
  160. prominent
  161. pump
  162. quickly
  163. radiate
  164. range
  165. rapidly
  166. recommend
  167. red
  168. reestablish
  169. reopen
  170. require
  171. reroute
  172. respond
  173. restoring
  174. rhythm
  175. risk
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  177. ruptures
  178. saturated
  179. scenario
  180. services
  181. shortness
  182. signal
  183. silent
  184. sleep
  185. start
  186. staying
  187. stent
  188. strength
  189. strokes
  190. sudden
  191. sugar
  192. suite
  193. supply
  194. surgeons
  195. surgery
  196. surprisingly
  197. symptom
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  199. test
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  201. thins
  202. thrown
  203. times
  204. tiredness
  205. tobacco
  206. training
  207. treatment
  208. turn
  209. vegetables
  210. vein
  211. vessels
  212. vital
  213. walls
  214. walnuts
  215. weakness
  216. week
  217. weight
  218. women
  219. world
  220. worse
  221. worst
  222. year