full transcript

From the Ted Talk by Douglas J. Casa: What happens when you get heat stroke?

Unscramble the Blue Letters

In 1985, 16-year-old Douglas Casa, ran the cimahsnpohip 10,000 meter tcrak race at the emipre State Games. Suddenly, with just 200 meetrs to go, he collapsed, got back up and then collapsed again on the final straightaway, with his body temperature at dangerous levels. He had suffered an etrniaexol heat stroke. Fortunately, with immediate and proper treatment, he sevvruid the potentially fatal ediopse and has since helped save 167 people in similar circumstances. From ancient soldiers on the btillteefad to modern day warriors on the gridiron, exertional heat stroke, or sstukrone, has long been a serious concern. And unlike clsiscaal heat stroke, which affects vulnerable ppoele such as ifntnas and the eerdlly during heat waves, exertional heat stroke is caused by intense eiercxse in the heat, and is one of the top three killers of athletes and soldiers in training. When you exercise, nearly 80% of the engery you use is transformed into heat. In normal circumstances, this is what's known as compensable heat stress. And your body can dissipate the heat as quickly as it's gntaereed through cooling methods like the evaporation of sweat. But with ueacolbnmnspe heat stress, your body is unable to lose enough heat due to overexertion or high temperatures in hdtumiiy, which raises your core temperature beyond normal levels. This causes the proteins and cell mnerbaems to denature, creating cells that no longer function properly and begin to leak their contents. If these leaky cells proliferate through the body, the retslus can be dvsitaaetng. Including liver dmagae, blood clot fiotomarn in the kidneys, damage to the gastrointestinal tcrat and even the flaurie of vital organs. So how do you dingaose an exertional heat stroke? The main criterion is a core body temperature greater than 40 dgeeers Celsius observed along with pyscahil symptoms such as increased heart rate, low blood pressure and rapid breathing or signs of central nervous system disfunction such as cneusofd behavior, aggression or loss of consciousness. The most feasible and accurate way to assess core body temperature is with a rectal thermometer as other cmoomn temperature-taking methods are not accurate in these ceasicnmrutcs. As far as treatment goes, the most important thing to remember is cool first, transport second. Because the human body can withstand a core temperature above 40 degrees Celsius for about 30 minutes before cell damage sets in, it's essential to initiate rapid cnoilog on site in order to lower it as quickly as possible. After any athletic or protective gear has been removed from the victim, place them in an ice wtear tub while stirring the water and moinoinrtg vitals continuously. If this is not possible, dousing in ice water and applying wet towels over the ernite body can help. But before you start anything, emergency services should be celald. As you wait, it's important to keep the victim calm while cooling as much surface area as possible until ernecmgey personnel airrve. If medical staff are available on site, cooling should continue until a core temperature of 38.9 degrees Celsius is racheed. The sun is known for giving life, but it can also take life away if we're not careful, even affecting the strongest among us. As Dr. JJ Levick wrote of exertional heat stroke in 1859, "It strikes down its vciitm with his full amror on. Youth, health and strength oppose no obstacle to its power." But although this condition is one of the top three leading causes of death in sports, it has been 100% survivable with proper care.

Open Cloze

In 1985, 16-year-old Douglas Casa, ran the ____________ 10,000 meter _____ race at the ______ State Games. Suddenly, with just 200 ______ to go, he collapsed, got back up and then collapsed again on the final straightaway, with his body temperature at dangerous levels. He had suffered an __________ heat stroke. Fortunately, with immediate and proper treatment, he ________ the potentially fatal _______ and has since helped save 167 people in similar circumstances. From ancient soldiers on the ___________ to modern day warriors on the gridiron, exertional heat stroke, or _________, has long been a serious concern. And unlike _________ heat stroke, which affects vulnerable ______ such as _______ and the _______ during heat waves, exertional heat stroke is caused by intense ________ in the heat, and is one of the top three killers of athletes and soldiers in training. When you exercise, nearly 80% of the ______ you use is transformed into heat. In normal circumstances, this is what's known as compensable heat stress. And your body can dissipate the heat as quickly as it's _________ through cooling methods like the evaporation of sweat. But with _____________ heat stress, your body is unable to lose enough heat due to overexertion or high temperatures in ________, which raises your core temperature beyond normal levels. This causes the proteins and cell _________ to denature, creating cells that no longer function properly and begin to leak their contents. If these leaky cells proliferate through the body, the _______ can be ___________. Including liver ______, blood clot _________ in the kidneys, damage to the gastrointestinal _____ and even the _______ of vital organs. So how do you ________ an exertional heat stroke? The main criterion is a core body temperature greater than 40 _______ Celsius observed along with ________ symptoms such as increased heart rate, low blood pressure and rapid breathing or signs of central nervous system disfunction such as ________ behavior, aggression or loss of consciousness. The most feasible and accurate way to assess core body temperature is with a rectal thermometer as other ______ temperature-taking methods are not accurate in these _____________. As far as treatment goes, the most important thing to remember is cool first, transport second. Because the human body can withstand a core temperature above 40 degrees Celsius for about 30 minutes before cell damage sets in, it's essential to initiate rapid _______ on site in order to lower it as quickly as possible. After any athletic or protective gear has been removed from the victim, place them in an ice _____ tub while stirring the water and __________ vitals continuously. If this is not possible, dousing in ice water and applying wet towels over the ______ body can help. But before you start anything, emergency services should be ______. As you wait, it's important to keep the victim calm while cooling as much surface area as possible until _________ personnel ______. If medical staff are available on site, cooling should continue until a core temperature of 38.9 degrees Celsius is _______. The sun is known for giving life, but it can also take life away if we're not careful, even affecting the strongest among us. As Dr. JJ Levick wrote of exertional heat stroke in 1859, "It strikes down its ______ with his full _____ on. Youth, health and strength oppose no obstacle to its power." But although this condition is one of the top three leading causes of death in sports, it has been 100% survivable with proper care.

Solution

  1. elderly
  2. energy
  3. diagnose
  4. emergency
  5. damage
  6. generated
  7. victim
  8. confused
  9. tract
  10. degrees
  11. episode
  12. humidity
  13. water
  14. monitoring
  15. battlefield
  16. infants
  17. arrive
  18. reached
  19. meters
  20. results
  21. armor
  22. people
  23. failure
  24. uncompensable
  25. physical
  26. championship
  27. classical
  28. entire
  29. empire
  30. exertional
  31. formation
  32. called
  33. track
  34. membranes
  35. circumstances
  36. exercise
  37. devastating
  38. common
  39. cooling
  40. survived
  41. sunstroke

Original Text

In 1985, 16-year-old Douglas Casa, ran the championship 10,000 meter track race at the Empire State Games. Suddenly, with just 200 meters to go, he collapsed, got back up and then collapsed again on the final straightaway, with his body temperature at dangerous levels. He had suffered an exertional heat stroke. Fortunately, with immediate and proper treatment, he survived the potentially fatal episode and has since helped save 167 people in similar circumstances. From ancient soldiers on the battlefield to modern day warriors on the gridiron, exertional heat stroke, or sunstroke, has long been a serious concern. And unlike classical heat stroke, which affects vulnerable people such as infants and the elderly during heat waves, exertional heat stroke is caused by intense exercise in the heat, and is one of the top three killers of athletes and soldiers in training. When you exercise, nearly 80% of the energy you use is transformed into heat. In normal circumstances, this is what's known as compensable heat stress. And your body can dissipate the heat as quickly as it's generated through cooling methods like the evaporation of sweat. But with uncompensable heat stress, your body is unable to lose enough heat due to overexertion or high temperatures in humidity, which raises your core temperature beyond normal levels. This causes the proteins and cell membranes to denature, creating cells that no longer function properly and begin to leak their contents. If these leaky cells proliferate through the body, the results can be devastating. Including liver damage, blood clot formation in the kidneys, damage to the gastrointestinal tract and even the failure of vital organs. So how do you diagnose an exertional heat stroke? The main criterion is a core body temperature greater than 40 degrees Celsius observed along with physical symptoms such as increased heart rate, low blood pressure and rapid breathing or signs of central nervous system disfunction such as confused behavior, aggression or loss of consciousness. The most feasible and accurate way to assess core body temperature is with a rectal thermometer as other common temperature-taking methods are not accurate in these circumstances. As far as treatment goes, the most important thing to remember is cool first, transport second. Because the human body can withstand a core temperature above 40 degrees Celsius for about 30 minutes before cell damage sets in, it's essential to initiate rapid cooling on site in order to lower it as quickly as possible. After any athletic or protective gear has been removed from the victim, place them in an ice water tub while stirring the water and monitoring vitals continuously. If this is not possible, dousing in ice water and applying wet towels over the entire body can help. But before you start anything, emergency services should be called. As you wait, it's important to keep the victim calm while cooling as much surface area as possible until emergency personnel arrive. If medical staff are available on site, cooling should continue until a core temperature of 38.9 degrees Celsius is reached. The sun is known for giving life, but it can also take life away if we're not careful, even affecting the strongest among us. As Dr. JJ Levick wrote of exertional heat stroke in 1859, "It strikes down its victim with his full armor on. Youth, health and strength oppose no obstacle to its power." But although this condition is one of the top three leading causes of death in sports, it has been 100% survivable with proper care.

Frequently Occurring Word Combinations

ngrams of length 2

collocation frequency
exertional heat 5
body temperature 3
heat stroke 3
core temperature 3
degrees celsius 3
core body 2
ice water 2

ngrams of length 3

collocation frequency
exertional heat stroke 3
core body temperature 2

Important Words

  1. accurate
  2. affecting
  3. affects
  4. aggression
  5. ancient
  6. applying
  7. area
  8. armor
  9. arrive
  10. assess
  11. athletes
  12. athletic
  13. battlefield
  14. behavior
  15. blood
  16. body
  17. breathing
  18. called
  19. calm
  20. care
  21. careful
  22. casa
  23. caused
  24. cell
  25. cells
  26. celsius
  27. central
  28. championship
  29. circumstances
  30. classical
  31. clot
  32. collapsed
  33. common
  34. compensable
  35. concern
  36. condition
  37. confused
  38. consciousness
  39. contents
  40. continue
  41. continuously
  42. cool
  43. cooling
  44. core
  45. creating
  46. criterion
  47. damage
  48. dangerous
  49. day
  50. death
  51. degrees
  52. denature
  53. devastating
  54. diagnose
  55. disfunction
  56. dissipate
  57. douglas
  58. dousing
  59. dr
  60. due
  61. elderly
  62. emergency
  63. empire
  64. energy
  65. entire
  66. episode
  67. essential
  68. evaporation
  69. exercise
  70. exertional
  71. failure
  72. fatal
  73. feasible
  74. final
  75. formation
  76. fortunately
  77. full
  78. function
  79. games
  80. gastrointestinal
  81. gear
  82. generated
  83. giving
  84. greater
  85. gridiron
  86. health
  87. heart
  88. heat
  89. helped
  90. high
  91. human
  92. humidity
  93. ice
  94. important
  95. including
  96. increased
  97. infants
  98. initiate
  99. intense
  100. jj
  101. kidneys
  102. killers
  103. leading
  104. leak
  105. leaky
  106. levels
  107. levick
  108. life
  109. liver
  110. long
  111. longer
  112. lose
  113. loss
  114. main
  115. medical
  116. membranes
  117. meter
  118. meters
  119. methods
  120. minutes
  121. modern
  122. monitoring
  123. nervous
  124. normal
  125. observed
  126. obstacle
  127. oppose
  128. order
  129. organs
  130. overexertion
  131. people
  132. personnel
  133. physical
  134. place
  135. potentially
  136. power
  137. pressure
  138. proliferate
  139. proper
  140. properly
  141. protective
  142. proteins
  143. quickly
  144. race
  145. raises
  146. ran
  147. rapid
  148. rate
  149. reached
  150. rectal
  151. remember
  152. removed
  153. results
  154. save
  155. services
  156. sets
  157. signs
  158. similar
  159. site
  160. soldiers
  161. sports
  162. staff
  163. start
  164. state
  165. stirring
  166. straightaway
  167. strength
  168. stress
  169. strikes
  170. stroke
  171. strongest
  172. suddenly
  173. suffered
  174. sun
  175. sunstroke
  176. surface
  177. survivable
  178. survived
  179. sweat
  180. symptoms
  181. system
  182. temperature
  183. temperatures
  184. thermometer
  185. top
  186. towels
  187. track
  188. tract
  189. training
  190. transformed
  191. transport
  192. treatment
  193. tub
  194. unable
  195. uncompensable
  196. victim
  197. vital
  198. vitals
  199. vulnerable
  200. wait
  201. warriors
  202. water
  203. waves
  204. wet
  205. withstand
  206. wrote
  207. youth