full transcript

From the Ted Talk by Emma Bryce: What is a calorie?

Unscramble the Blue Letters

We hear about calories all the time. How many calories are in this cookie? How many are burned by 100 jumping jacks, or long distance runinng, or fidgeting? But what is a calorie, really, and how many of them do we actually need? Calories are a way of keeping track of the body's energy budget. A healthy balance occurs when we put in about as much energy as we lose. If we consistently put more energy into our bodies than we burn, the excess will gradually be stored as fat in our cells, and we'll gain weight. If we burn off more energy than we replenish, we'll lose weight. So we have to be able to measure the energy we consume and use, and we do so with a unit called the calorie. One calorie, the kind we measure in food, also cllaed a large calorie, is dnfeeid as the amount of energy it would take to riase the temperature of one kilogram of wtaer by one degree Celsius. Everything we consume has a calorie cuont, a measure of how much energy the item stores in its chemical bonds. The average pizza slice has 272 calories, there are about 78 in a piece of bread, and an apple has about 52. That energy is released during digestion, and stored in other meloluces that can be broken down to pdorive energy when the body needs it. It's used in three ways: about 10% eabnels digestion, about 20% fuels physical activity, and the biggest chunk, around 70%, supports the basic functions of our ognars and tiseuss. That third usage corresponds to your basal metabolic rate, a number of celaoirs you would need to survive if you weren't etnaig or moving around. Add in some physical activity and digestion, and you arrive at the official gdeilineus for how many calories the average person requires each day: 2000 for women and 2500 for men. Those estimates are baesd on factors like average weight, physical activity and muscle mass. So does that mean everyone should sooht for around 2000 calories? Not nlsciesreay. If you're doing an energy guzzling activity, like cycling the Tour de fnrcae, your body could use up to 9000 calories per day. Pregnancy requires slightly more calories than usual, and elderly peolpe typically have a slower metabolic rate, energy is burned more gradually, so less is needed. Here's something else you should know before you start counting calories. The calorie counts on nutrition labels measure how much energy the food contains, not how much energy you can actually get out of it. Fibrous foods like creely and whole wheat take more energy to digest, so you'd actually wind up with less energy from a 100 coarile serving of celery than a 100 calorie serving of potato chips. Not to mention the fact that some fodos offer nutrients like petiron and vitamins, while others provide far less nutritional value. Eating too many of those foods could leave you overweight and malnourished. And even with the excat same food, different people might not get the same number of calories. Variations in things like eynmze lleevs, gut bcrtiaea, and even intestine length, means that every individual's ability to extract egenry from food is a little different. So a calorie is a useful energy measure, but to work out exactly how many of them each of us requires we need to factor in things like exercise, food type, and our body's ability to process energy. Good luck finding all of that on a nutrition label.

Open Cloze

We hear about calories all the time. How many calories are in this cookie? How many are burned by 100 jumping jacks, or long distance _______, or fidgeting? But what is a calorie, really, and how many of them do we actually need? Calories are a way of keeping track of the body's energy budget. A healthy balance occurs when we put in about as much energy as we lose. If we consistently put more energy into our bodies than we burn, the excess will gradually be stored as fat in our cells, and we'll gain weight. If we burn off more energy than we replenish, we'll lose weight. So we have to be able to measure the energy we consume and use, and we do so with a unit called the calorie. One calorie, the kind we measure in food, also ______ a large calorie, is _______ as the amount of energy it would take to _____ the temperature of one kilogram of _____ by one degree Celsius. Everything we consume has a calorie _____, a measure of how much energy the item stores in its chemical bonds. The average pizza slice has 272 calories, there are about 78 in a piece of bread, and an apple has about 52. That energy is released during digestion, and stored in other _________ that can be broken down to _______ energy when the body needs it. It's used in three ways: about 10% _______ digestion, about 20% fuels physical activity, and the biggest chunk, around 70%, supports the basic functions of our ______ and _______. That third usage corresponds to your basal metabolic rate, a number of ________ you would need to survive if you weren't ______ or moving around. Add in some physical activity and digestion, and you arrive at the official __________ for how many calories the average person requires each day: 2000 for women and 2500 for men. Those estimates are _____ on factors like average weight, physical activity and muscle mass. So does that mean everyone should _____ for around 2000 calories? Not ___________. If you're doing an energy guzzling activity, like cycling the Tour de ______, your body could use up to 9000 calories per day. Pregnancy requires slightly more calories than usual, and elderly ______ typically have a slower metabolic rate, energy is burned more gradually, so less is needed. Here's something else you should know before you start counting calories. The calorie counts on nutrition labels measure how much energy the food contains, not how much energy you can actually get out of it. Fibrous foods like ______ and whole wheat take more energy to digest, so you'd actually wind up with less energy from a 100 _______ serving of celery than a 100 calorie serving of potato chips. Not to mention the fact that some _____ offer nutrients like _______ and vitamins, while others provide far less nutritional value. Eating too many of those foods could leave you overweight and malnourished. And even with the _____ same food, different people might not get the same number of calories. Variations in things like ______ ______, gut ________, and even intestine length, means that every individual's ability to extract ______ from food is a little different. So a calorie is a useful energy measure, but to work out exactly how many of them each of us requires we need to factor in things like exercise, food type, and our body's ability to process energy. Good luck finding all of that on a nutrition label.

Solution

  1. raise
  2. energy
  3. people
  4. count
  5. necessarily
  6. running
  7. france
  8. levels
  9. celery
  10. exact
  11. tissues
  12. eating
  13. calorie
  14. enables
  15. shoot
  16. water
  17. molecules
  18. called
  19. calories
  20. based
  21. foods
  22. provide
  23. bacteria
  24. organs
  25. enzyme
  26. defined
  27. protein
  28. guidelines

Original Text

We hear about calories all the time. How many calories are in this cookie? How many are burned by 100 jumping jacks, or long distance running, or fidgeting? But what is a calorie, really, and how many of them do we actually need? Calories are a way of keeping track of the body's energy budget. A healthy balance occurs when we put in about as much energy as we lose. If we consistently put more energy into our bodies than we burn, the excess will gradually be stored as fat in our cells, and we'll gain weight. If we burn off more energy than we replenish, we'll lose weight. So we have to be able to measure the energy we consume and use, and we do so with a unit called the calorie. One calorie, the kind we measure in food, also called a large calorie, is defined as the amount of energy it would take to raise the temperature of one kilogram of water by one degree Celsius. Everything we consume has a calorie count, a measure of how much energy the item stores in its chemical bonds. The average pizza slice has 272 calories, there are about 78 in a piece of bread, and an apple has about 52. That energy is released during digestion, and stored in other molecules that can be broken down to provide energy when the body needs it. It's used in three ways: about 10% enables digestion, about 20% fuels physical activity, and the biggest chunk, around 70%, supports the basic functions of our organs and tissues. That third usage corresponds to your basal metabolic rate, a number of calories you would need to survive if you weren't eating or moving around. Add in some physical activity and digestion, and you arrive at the official guidelines for how many calories the average person requires each day: 2000 for women and 2500 for men. Those estimates are based on factors like average weight, physical activity and muscle mass. So does that mean everyone should shoot for around 2000 calories? Not necessarily. If you're doing an energy guzzling activity, like cycling the Tour de France, your body could use up to 9000 calories per day. Pregnancy requires slightly more calories than usual, and elderly people typically have a slower metabolic rate, energy is burned more gradually, so less is needed. Here's something else you should know before you start counting calories. The calorie counts on nutrition labels measure how much energy the food contains, not how much energy you can actually get out of it. Fibrous foods like celery and whole wheat take more energy to digest, so you'd actually wind up with less energy from a 100 calorie serving of celery than a 100 calorie serving of potato chips. Not to mention the fact that some foods offer nutrients like protein and vitamins, while others provide far less nutritional value. Eating too many of those foods could leave you overweight and malnourished. And even with the exact same food, different people might not get the same number of calories. Variations in things like enzyme levels, gut bacteria, and even intestine length, means that every individual's ability to extract energy from food is a little different. So a calorie is a useful energy measure, but to work out exactly how many of them each of us requires we need to factor in things like exercise, food type, and our body's ability to process energy. Good luck finding all of that on a nutrition label.

Frequently Occurring Word Combinations

ngrams of length 2

collocation frequency
physical activity 2
calorie serving 2

Important Words

  1. ability
  2. activity
  3. add
  4. amount
  5. apple
  6. arrive
  7. average
  8. bacteria
  9. balance
  10. basal
  11. based
  12. basic
  13. biggest
  14. bodies
  15. body
  16. bonds
  17. bread
  18. broken
  19. budget
  20. burn
  21. burned
  22. called
  23. calorie
  24. calories
  25. celery
  26. cells
  27. celsius
  28. chemical
  29. chips
  30. chunk
  31. consistently
  32. consume
  33. cookie
  34. corresponds
  35. count
  36. counting
  37. counts
  38. cycling
  39. day
  40. de
  41. defined
  42. degree
  43. digest
  44. digestion
  45. distance
  46. eating
  47. elderly
  48. enables
  49. energy
  50. enzyme
  51. estimates
  52. exact
  53. excess
  54. exercise
  55. extract
  56. fact
  57. factor
  58. factors
  59. fat
  60. fibrous
  61. fidgeting
  62. finding
  63. food
  64. foods
  65. france
  66. fuels
  67. functions
  68. gain
  69. good
  70. gradually
  71. guidelines
  72. gut
  73. guzzling
  74. healthy
  75. hear
  76. intestine
  77. item
  78. jacks
  79. jumping
  80. keeping
  81. kilogram
  82. kind
  83. label
  84. labels
  85. large
  86. leave
  87. length
  88. levels
  89. long
  90. lose
  91. luck
  92. malnourished
  93. mass
  94. means
  95. measure
  96. men
  97. mention
  98. metabolic
  99. molecules
  100. moving
  101. muscle
  102. necessarily
  103. needed
  104. number
  105. nutrients
  106. nutrition
  107. nutritional
  108. occurs
  109. offer
  110. official
  111. organs
  112. overweight
  113. people
  114. person
  115. physical
  116. piece
  117. pizza
  118. potato
  119. pregnancy
  120. process
  121. protein
  122. provide
  123. put
  124. raise
  125. rate
  126. released
  127. replenish
  128. requires
  129. running
  130. serving
  131. shoot
  132. slice
  133. slightly
  134. slower
  135. start
  136. stored
  137. stores
  138. supports
  139. survive
  140. temperature
  141. time
  142. tissues
  143. tour
  144. track
  145. type
  146. typically
  147. unit
  148. usage
  149. usual
  150. variations
  151. vitamins
  152. water
  153. weight
  154. wheat
  155. wind
  156. women
  157. work