full transcript

From the Ted Talk by George Zaidan: What is fat?

Unscramble the Blue Letters

olvie oil is 100% fat; there's nothing else in it. pakcane mix, on the other hand, is only about 11% fat. And, yet, olive oil is good for you, and pancake mix is not. Why is that? As it turns out, the amount of fat we eat doesn't impact our weight or our cholesterol or our risk of heart disease nearly as much as what kind of fat we eat. But let's back up: What is fat? If we were to zoom in on a smlaon, which is a fttay fish, past the organs, past the tissues, into the cells, we would see that the stfuf we call fat is actually made up of mcleuleos called triglycerides, and they are not all aikle. Here's one example. Those three carbons on the left, that's goceyrll. Now, you can think of that as the backbone that holds the rest of the molecule together. The three long chains on the right are called fatty acids, and it's slbute differences in the structures of these ciahns that determine whether a fat is, let's say, solid or liquid; whether or not it goes rncaid quickly; and, most importantly, how good or how bad it is for you. Let's take a look at some of these differences. One is lgneth. Fatty acids can be short or long. Another, more inopmrtat difference is the type of bond between the carbon atoms. Some fatty acids have only siglne bdons. Others have both single and double bonds. Fatty acids with only single bonds are called saturated, and those with one or more double bonds are called unsaturated. Now, most uetranstuad fats are good for you, while saturated fats are bad for you in eexscs. For srtuaated fats, the story pretty much ends there but not for unsaturated fats. The dulboe bonds in these molecules have a kind of weird property; they're rgiid. So, that means there are two ways to arrange every double bond. The first is like this, where both hydrogens are on same side and both cnrboas are on the same side. The second way is like this. Now the hydrogens and carbons are on opposite sides of the double bond. Now, even though both of these molecules are made up of exactly the same building blocks, they are two completely different sbstuaecns, and they behave completely differently inside of us. The configuration on the left is called CIS, which you've probably never heard of. The one of the right is called TRANS, and you probably have heard of trans fats before. They don't go rancid, they're more stable during deep frying, and they can cnhgae the texture of foods in ways that other fats just can't. They're also terrible for your health, by far worse than saturated fat, even though technically they're a type of unsaturated fat. Now, I know that seems crazy, but your body doesn't care what a molecule looks like on paper. All that matters is the 3-D shape where the mlcloeue fits, where it doesn't, and what pathways it ifeneretrs with. So, how do you know if a food has trans fat in it? Well, the only sure way to know is if you see the words, "partially hydrogenated" in the ingredients list. Don't let nutrition lbeals or advertising fool you. The FDA allows mrnecuutaarfs to claim that their products contain "0" grams of trans fat even if they actually have up to half a gram per serving. But there are no hard and fast rules about how small a serving can be, and, that manes, you'll have to rely on seeing those key words, partially hydrogenated, because that's how trans fats are made, by partially hydrogenating unsaturated fats. So, let's go back to our olive oil and pancake mix from before. Olive oil is 100% fat. Pancake mix is only 11% fat. But olive oil is mostly unsaturated fat, and it has no trans fat at all. On the other hand, more than half the fat in pancake mix is either saturated or trans fat. And, so, even though olive oil has 10 times as much fat as pancake mix, it's healthy for you, whereas pancake mix is not. Now, I'm not trying to pick on pancake mix. There are lots of fodos with this type of fat profile. The point is this: It's not how much fat you eat, it's what kind of fat. And what makes a particular fat healthy or unhealthy is its shpae.

Open Cloze

_____ oil is 100% fat; there's nothing else in it. _______ mix, on the other hand, is only about 11% fat. And, yet, olive oil is good for you, and pancake mix is not. Why is that? As it turns out, the amount of fat we eat doesn't impact our weight or our cholesterol or our risk of heart disease nearly as much as what kind of fat we eat. But let's back up: What is fat? If we were to zoom in on a ______, which is a _____ fish, past the organs, past the tissues, into the cells, we would see that the _____ we call fat is actually made up of _________ called triglycerides, and they are not all _____. Here's one example. Those three carbons on the left, that's ________. Now, you can think of that as the backbone that holds the rest of the molecule together. The three long chains on the right are called fatty acids, and it's ______ differences in the structures of these ______ that determine whether a fat is, let's say, solid or liquid; whether or not it goes ______ quickly; and, most importantly, how good or how bad it is for you. Let's take a look at some of these differences. One is ______. Fatty acids can be short or long. Another, more _________ difference is the type of bond between the carbon atoms. Some fatty acids have only ______ _____. Others have both single and double bonds. Fatty acids with only single bonds are called saturated, and those with one or more double bonds are called unsaturated. Now, most ___________ fats are good for you, while saturated fats are bad for you in ______. For _________ fats, the story pretty much ends there but not for unsaturated fats. The ______ bonds in these molecules have a kind of weird property; they're _____. So, that means there are two ways to arrange every double bond. The first is like this, where both hydrogens are on same side and both _______ are on the same side. The second way is like this. Now the hydrogens and carbons are on opposite sides of the double bond. Now, even though both of these molecules are made up of exactly the same building blocks, they are two completely different __________, and they behave completely differently inside of us. The configuration on the left is called CIS, which you've probably never heard of. The one of the right is called TRANS, and you probably have heard of trans fats before. They don't go rancid, they're more stable during deep frying, and they can ______ the texture of foods in ways that other fats just can't. They're also terrible for your health, by far worse than saturated fat, even though technically they're a type of unsaturated fat. Now, I know that seems crazy, but your body doesn't care what a molecule looks like on paper. All that matters is the 3-D shape where the ________ fits, where it doesn't, and what pathways it __________ with. So, how do you know if a food has trans fat in it? Well, the only sure way to know is if you see the words, "partially hydrogenated" in the ingredients list. Don't let nutrition ______ or advertising fool you. The FDA allows _____________ to claim that their products contain "0" grams of trans fat even if they actually have up to half a gram per serving. But there are no hard and fast rules about how small a serving can be, and, that _____, you'll have to rely on seeing those key words, partially hydrogenated, because that's how trans fats are made, by partially hydrogenating unsaturated fats. So, let's go back to our olive oil and pancake mix from before. Olive oil is 100% fat. Pancake mix is only 11% fat. But olive oil is mostly unsaturated fat, and it has no trans fat at all. On the other hand, more than half the fat in pancake mix is either saturated or trans fat. And, so, even though olive oil has 10 times as much fat as pancake mix, it's healthy for you, whereas pancake mix is not. Now, I'm not trying to pick on pancake mix. There are lots of _____ with this type of fat profile. The point is this: It's not how much fat you eat, it's what kind of fat. And what makes a particular fat healthy or unhealthy is its _____.

Solution

  1. saturated
  2. single
  3. change
  4. substances
  5. stuff
  6. double
  7. carbons
  8. glycerol
  9. manufacturers
  10. interferes
  11. rancid
  12. length
  13. salmon
  14. foods
  15. molecule
  16. alike
  17. unsaturated
  18. excess
  19. molecules
  20. rigid
  21. means
  22. pancake
  23. subtle
  24. chains
  25. labels
  26. important
  27. bonds
  28. olive
  29. shape
  30. fatty

Original Text

Olive oil is 100% fat; there's nothing else in it. Pancake mix, on the other hand, is only about 11% fat. And, yet, olive oil is good for you, and pancake mix is not. Why is that? As it turns out, the amount of fat we eat doesn't impact our weight or our cholesterol or our risk of heart disease nearly as much as what kind of fat we eat. But let's back up: What is fat? If we were to zoom in on a salmon, which is a fatty fish, past the organs, past the tissues, into the cells, we would see that the stuff we call fat is actually made up of molecules called triglycerides, and they are not all alike. Here's one example. Those three carbons on the left, that's glycerol. Now, you can think of that as the backbone that holds the rest of the molecule together. The three long chains on the right are called fatty acids, and it's subtle differences in the structures of these chains that determine whether a fat is, let's say, solid or liquid; whether or not it goes rancid quickly; and, most importantly, how good or how bad it is for you. Let's take a look at some of these differences. One is length. Fatty acids can be short or long. Another, more important difference is the type of bond between the carbon atoms. Some fatty acids have only single bonds. Others have both single and double bonds. Fatty acids with only single bonds are called saturated, and those with one or more double bonds are called unsaturated. Now, most unsaturated fats are good for you, while saturated fats are bad for you in excess. For saturated fats, the story pretty much ends there but not for unsaturated fats. The double bonds in these molecules have a kind of weird property; they're rigid. So, that means there are two ways to arrange every double bond. The first is like this, where both hydrogens are on same side and both carbons are on the same side. The second way is like this. Now the hydrogens and carbons are on opposite sides of the double bond. Now, even though both of these molecules are made up of exactly the same building blocks, they are two completely different substances, and they behave completely differently inside of us. The configuration on the left is called CIS, which you've probably never heard of. The one of the right is called TRANS, and you probably have heard of trans fats before. They don't go rancid, they're more stable during deep frying, and they can change the texture of foods in ways that other fats just can't. They're also terrible for your health, by far worse than saturated fat, even though technically they're a type of unsaturated fat. Now, I know that seems crazy, but your body doesn't care what a molecule looks like on paper. All that matters is the 3-D shape where the molecule fits, where it doesn't, and what pathways it interferes with. So, how do you know if a food has trans fat in it? Well, the only sure way to know is if you see the words, "partially hydrogenated" in the ingredients list. Don't let nutrition labels or advertising fool you. The FDA allows manufacturers to claim that their products contain "0" grams of trans fat even if they actually have up to half a gram per serving. But there are no hard and fast rules about how small a serving can be, and, that means, you'll have to rely on seeing those key words, partially hydrogenated, because that's how trans fats are made, by partially hydrogenating unsaturated fats. So, let's go back to our olive oil and pancake mix from before. Olive oil is 100% fat. Pancake mix is only 11% fat. But olive oil is mostly unsaturated fat, and it has no trans fat at all. On the other hand, more than half the fat in pancake mix is either saturated or trans fat. And, so, even though olive oil has 10 times as much fat as pancake mix, it's healthy for you, whereas pancake mix is not. Now, I'm not trying to pick on pancake mix. There are lots of foods with this type of fat profile. The point is this: It's not how much fat you eat, it's what kind of fat. And what makes a particular fat healthy or unhealthy is its shape.

Frequently Occurring Word Combinations

ngrams of length 2

collocation frequency
olive oil 6
pancake mix 6
trans fat 4
fatty acids 3
double bonds 3
unsaturated fats 3
single bonds 2
double bond 2
trans fats 2

Important Words

  1. acids
  2. advertising
  3. alike
  4. amount
  5. arrange
  6. atoms
  7. backbone
  8. bad
  9. behave
  10. blocks
  11. body
  12. bond
  13. bonds
  14. building
  15. call
  16. called
  17. carbon
  18. carbons
  19. care
  20. cells
  21. chains
  22. change
  23. cholesterol
  24. cis
  25. claim
  26. completely
  27. configuration
  28. crazy
  29. deep
  30. determine
  31. difference
  32. differences
  33. differently
  34. disease
  35. double
  36. eat
  37. ends
  38. excess
  39. fast
  40. fat
  41. fats
  42. fatty
  43. fda
  44. fish
  45. fits
  46. food
  47. foods
  48. fool
  49. frying
  50. glycerol
  51. good
  52. gram
  53. grams
  54. hand
  55. hard
  56. health
  57. healthy
  58. heard
  59. heart
  60. holds
  61. hydrogenated
  62. hydrogenating
  63. hydrogens
  64. impact
  65. important
  66. importantly
  67. ingredients
  68. interferes
  69. key
  70. kind
  71. labels
  72. left
  73. length
  74. list
  75. long
  76. lots
  77. manufacturers
  78. matters
  79. means
  80. mix
  81. molecule
  82. molecules
  83. nutrition
  84. oil
  85. olive
  86. organs
  87. pancake
  88. paper
  89. partially
  90. pathways
  91. pick
  92. point
  93. pretty
  94. products
  95. profile
  96. rancid
  97. rely
  98. rest
  99. rigid
  100. risk
  101. rules
  102. salmon
  103. saturated
  104. serving
  105. shape
  106. short
  107. side
  108. sides
  109. single
  110. small
  111. solid
  112. stable
  113. story
  114. structures
  115. stuff
  116. substances
  117. subtle
  118. technically
  119. terrible
  120. texture
  121. times
  122. tissues
  123. trans
  124. triglycerides
  125. turns
  126. type
  127. unhealthy
  128. unsaturated
  129. ways
  130. weight
  131. weird
  132. words
  133. worse
  134. zoom