full transcript

From the Ted Talk by Mia Nacamulli: What is obesity?

Unscramble the Blue Letters

The most basic function of bdioly fat is self-storage of food reserves. In prehistoric times, natural selection fearvod genotypes that could endure harsh conditions by stocking the most fat. With chronic mitlitouanrn being the norm for most of human history, genetics evolved to favor fat storage. So when did body fat become problematic? The negative impacts of being overweight were not even noted in medical lettruraie until as late as the 18th century. Then, technological advances coupled with public haleth measures reeltsud in the betterment of the quantity, quality, and variety of food. Sustained abundance of good food enabled a healthier pootlaiupn to boom economically. Output increased, and with it, leisure time and waistlines. By the mid 19th century, being excessively overweight, or obese, was recognized as a cause of ill health, and another century later, declared ddelay. What is the distinction between being ohwgeirvet and being obese? A calculation called the BMI breaks it down for us. For example, if someone weighs 65 kilgorams and is 1.5 meters tall, they have a BMI of about 29. Obesity is a coitndoin of excess body fat that occurs when a person's BMI is above 30, just over the overweight range of 25 to 29.9. While BMI can be a helpful estimate of hlahety wihget, actual body fat percentage can only really be determined by also considering information like wsiat circumference and muscle mass. Athletes, for inctnsae, have a naturally higher BMI. So how does a preosn become obese? At its most basic, obesity is caused by energy imbalance. If the enegry iunpt from calories is greater than the energy opuutt from physical activity, the body stores the ertxa calories as fat. In most cases, this iaablcmne comes from a combination of circumstances and choices. Adults should be getting at least 2.5 huors of exercise each week, and children a whole hour per day. But globally, one in four adults and eight out of ten adolescents aren't active enough. Calorie-dense processed foods and gnoriwg portion sizes coupled with pervasive marketing lead to passive overeating. And scarce resources, and a lack of access to healthy, affordable foods cetares an even greater risk in disadvantaged communities. Yet, our genetic makeup also plays a part. Studies on families and on separated twins have shown a clear causal hereditary rinotsilehap to weight gain. Recent studies have also found a link between obesity and vantriioas in the bacteria species that live in our digestive smtyess. No mettar the cause, obestiy is an escalating goball epidemic. It substantially raises the probability of diseases, like diabetes, heart deaisse, stroke, high blood pressure, and cancer. It affects virtually all ages, genders, and socioeconomic groups in both developed and developing countries. With a 60% rise in child obesity globally over just two decades, the pbolrem is too significant to ignore. Once a person is obese, the climb to recovery becomes progressively steeper. hoormanl and metabolic changes rcduee the body's response to oveirtaneg. After losing weight, a formerly overweight person burns less cralioes doing the same exercises as a person who is naturally the same weight, making it much more difficult to shed the excess fat. And as poplee gain weight, damage to signaling pathways makes it increasingly difficult for the brain to measure food intake and fat storage. There is, however, some evidence that well-monitored, long-term changes in behavior can lead to improvements in obesity-related health isuses. And weight loss from sianetusd lifestyle changes, or invasive treatments like bariatric sruegry, can improve insulin resistance and decrease inflammation. What was once an advantage for svrivaul is now working against us. As the world's population continues to slow down and get bigger, moving and consciously eating our way towards a healthier weight is essential to our overall well-being. And with the ediiepmc affecting every cuontry in the world for different soicoeonomcic reasons, obesity cannot be seen as an isolated issue. More global measures for prevention are essential to manage the weight of the wrlod.

Open Cloze

The most basic function of ______ fat is self-storage of food reserves. In prehistoric times, natural selection _______ genotypes that could endure harsh conditions by stocking the most fat. With chronic ____________ being the norm for most of human history, genetics evolved to favor fat storage. So when did body fat become problematic? The negative impacts of being overweight were not even noted in medical __________ until as late as the 18th century. Then, technological advances coupled with public ______ measures ________ in the betterment of the quantity, quality, and variety of food. Sustained abundance of good food enabled a healthier __________ to boom economically. Output increased, and with it, leisure time and waistlines. By the mid 19th century, being excessively overweight, or obese, was recognized as a cause of ill health, and another century later, declared ______. What is the distinction between being __________ and being obese? A calculation called the BMI breaks it down for us. For example, if someone weighs 65 kilgorams and is 1.5 meters tall, they have a BMI of about 29. Obesity is a _________ of excess body fat that occurs when a person's BMI is above 30, just over the overweight range of 25 to 29.9. While BMI can be a helpful estimate of _______ ______, actual body fat percentage can only really be determined by also considering information like _____ circumference and muscle mass. Athletes, for ________, have a naturally higher BMI. So how does a ______ become obese? At its most basic, obesity is caused by energy imbalance. If the ______ _____ from calories is greater than the energy ______ from physical activity, the body stores the _____ calories as fat. In most cases, this _________ comes from a combination of circumstances and choices. Adults should be getting at least 2.5 _____ of exercise each week, and children a whole hour per day. But globally, one in four adults and eight out of ten adolescents aren't active enough. Calorie-dense processed foods and _______ portion sizes coupled with pervasive marketing lead to passive overeating. And scarce resources, and a lack of access to healthy, affordable foods _______ an even greater risk in disadvantaged communities. Yet, our genetic makeup also plays a part. Studies on families and on separated twins have shown a clear causal hereditary ____________ to weight gain. Recent studies have also found a link between obesity and __________ in the bacteria species that live in our digestive _______. No ______ the cause, _______ is an escalating ______ epidemic. It substantially raises the probability of diseases, like diabetes, heart _______, stroke, high blood pressure, and cancer. It affects virtually all ages, genders, and socioeconomic groups in both developed and developing countries. With a 60% rise in child obesity globally over just two decades, the _______ is too significant to ignore. Once a person is obese, the climb to recovery becomes progressively steeper. ________ and metabolic changes ______ the body's response to __________. After losing weight, a formerly overweight person burns less ________ doing the same exercises as a person who is naturally the same weight, making it much more difficult to shed the excess fat. And as ______ gain weight, damage to signaling pathways makes it increasingly difficult for the brain to measure food intake and fat storage. There is, however, some evidence that well-monitored, long-term changes in behavior can lead to improvements in obesity-related health ______. And weight loss from _________ lifestyle changes, or invasive treatments like bariatric _______, can improve insulin resistance and decrease inflammation. What was once an advantage for ________ is now working against us. As the world's population continues to slow down and get bigger, moving and consciously eating our way towards a healthier weight is essential to our overall well-being. And with the ________ affecting every _______ in the world for different _____________ reasons, obesity cannot be seen as an isolated issue. More global measures for prevention are essential to manage the weight of the _____.

Solution

  1. matter
  2. reduce
  3. variations
  4. healthy
  5. surgery
  6. instance
  7. epidemic
  8. deadly
  9. growing
  10. condition
  11. country
  12. socioeconomic
  13. problem
  14. systems
  15. overweight
  16. sustained
  17. calories
  18. disease
  19. creates
  20. imbalance
  21. extra
  22. world
  23. malnutrition
  24. input
  25. population
  26. waist
  27. energy
  28. person
  29. resulted
  30. favored
  31. health
  32. weight
  33. issues
  34. obesity
  35. global
  36. relationship
  37. people
  38. hours
  39. overeating
  40. literature
  41. bodily
  42. hormonal
  43. output
  44. survival

Original Text

The most basic function of bodily fat is self-storage of food reserves. In prehistoric times, natural selection favored genotypes that could endure harsh conditions by stocking the most fat. With chronic malnutrition being the norm for most of human history, genetics evolved to favor fat storage. So when did body fat become problematic? The negative impacts of being overweight were not even noted in medical literature until as late as the 18th century. Then, technological advances coupled with public health measures resulted in the betterment of the quantity, quality, and variety of food. Sustained abundance of good food enabled a healthier population to boom economically. Output increased, and with it, leisure time and waistlines. By the mid 19th century, being excessively overweight, or obese, was recognized as a cause of ill health, and another century later, declared deadly. What is the distinction between being overweight and being obese? A calculation called the BMI breaks it down for us. For example, if someone weighs 65 kilgorams and is 1.5 meters tall, they have a BMI of about 29. Obesity is a condition of excess body fat that occurs when a person's BMI is above 30, just over the overweight range of 25 to 29.9. While BMI can be a helpful estimate of healthy weight, actual body fat percentage can only really be determined by also considering information like waist circumference and muscle mass. Athletes, for instance, have a naturally higher BMI. So how does a person become obese? At its most basic, obesity is caused by energy imbalance. If the energy input from calories is greater than the energy output from physical activity, the body stores the extra calories as fat. In most cases, this imbalance comes from a combination of circumstances and choices. Adults should be getting at least 2.5 hours of exercise each week, and children a whole hour per day. But globally, one in four adults and eight out of ten adolescents aren't active enough. Calorie-dense processed foods and growing portion sizes coupled with pervasive marketing lead to passive overeating. And scarce resources, and a lack of access to healthy, affordable foods creates an even greater risk in disadvantaged communities. Yet, our genetic makeup also plays a part. Studies on families and on separated twins have shown a clear causal hereditary relationship to weight gain. Recent studies have also found a link between obesity and variations in the bacteria species that live in our digestive systems. No matter the cause, obesity is an escalating global epidemic. It substantially raises the probability of diseases, like diabetes, heart disease, stroke, high blood pressure, and cancer. It affects virtually all ages, genders, and socioeconomic groups in both developed and developing countries. With a 60% rise in child obesity globally over just two decades, the problem is too significant to ignore. Once a person is obese, the climb to recovery becomes progressively steeper. Hormonal and metabolic changes reduce the body's response to overeating. After losing weight, a formerly overweight person burns less calories doing the same exercises as a person who is naturally the same weight, making it much more difficult to shed the excess fat. And as people gain weight, damage to signaling pathways makes it increasingly difficult for the brain to measure food intake and fat storage. There is, however, some evidence that well-monitored, long-term changes in behavior can lead to improvements in obesity-related health issues. And weight loss from sustained lifestyle changes, or invasive treatments like bariatric surgery, can improve insulin resistance and decrease inflammation. What was once an advantage for survival is now working against us. As the world's population continues to slow down and get bigger, moving and consciously eating our way towards a healthier weight is essential to our overall well-being. And with the epidemic affecting every country in the world for different socioeconomic reasons, obesity cannot be seen as an isolated issue. More global measures for prevention are essential to manage the weight of the world.

Frequently Occurring Word Combinations

ngrams of length 2

collocation frequency
body fat 3
fat storage 2

Important Words

  1. abundance
  2. access
  3. active
  4. activity
  5. actual
  6. adolescents
  7. adults
  8. advances
  9. advantage
  10. affecting
  11. affects
  12. affordable
  13. ages
  14. athletes
  15. bacteria
  16. bariatric
  17. basic
  18. behavior
  19. betterment
  20. bigger
  21. blood
  22. bmi
  23. bodily
  24. body
  25. boom
  26. brain
  27. breaks
  28. burns
  29. calculation
  30. called
  31. calories
  32. cancer
  33. cases
  34. causal
  35. caused
  36. century
  37. child
  38. children
  39. choices
  40. chronic
  41. circumference
  42. circumstances
  43. clear
  44. climb
  45. combination
  46. communities
  47. condition
  48. conditions
  49. consciously
  50. continues
  51. countries
  52. country
  53. coupled
  54. creates
  55. damage
  56. day
  57. deadly
  58. decades
  59. declared
  60. decrease
  61. determined
  62. developed
  63. developing
  64. diabetes
  65. difficult
  66. digestive
  67. disadvantaged
  68. disease
  69. diseases
  70. distinction
  71. eating
  72. economically
  73. enabled
  74. endure
  75. energy
  76. epidemic
  77. escalating
  78. essential
  79. estimate
  80. evidence
  81. evolved
  82. excess
  83. excessively
  84. exercise
  85. exercises
  86. extra
  87. families
  88. fat
  89. favor
  90. favored
  91. food
  92. foods
  93. function
  94. gain
  95. genders
  96. genetic
  97. genetics
  98. genotypes
  99. global
  100. globally
  101. good
  102. greater
  103. groups
  104. growing
  105. harsh
  106. health
  107. healthier
  108. healthy
  109. heart
  110. helpful
  111. hereditary
  112. high
  113. higher
  114. history
  115. hormonal
  116. hour
  117. hours
  118. human
  119. ignore
  120. ill
  121. imbalance
  122. impacts
  123. improve
  124. improvements
  125. increased
  126. increasingly
  127. inflammation
  128. information
  129. input
  130. instance
  131. insulin
  132. intake
  133. invasive
  134. isolated
  135. issue
  136. issues
  137. kilgorams
  138. lack
  139. late
  140. lead
  141. leisure
  142. lifestyle
  143. link
  144. literature
  145. live
  146. losing
  147. loss
  148. makeup
  149. making
  150. malnutrition
  151. manage
  152. marketing
  153. mass
  154. matter
  155. measure
  156. measures
  157. medical
  158. metabolic
  159. meters
  160. mid
  161. moving
  162. muscle
  163. natural
  164. naturally
  165. negative
  166. norm
  167. noted
  168. obese
  169. obesity
  170. occurs
  171. output
  172. overeating
  173. overweight
  174. part
  175. passive
  176. pathways
  177. people
  178. percentage
  179. person
  180. pervasive
  181. physical
  182. plays
  183. population
  184. portion
  185. prehistoric
  186. pressure
  187. prevention
  188. probability
  189. problem
  190. problematic
  191. processed
  192. progressively
  193. public
  194. quality
  195. quantity
  196. raises
  197. range
  198. reasons
  199. recognized
  200. recovery
  201. reduce
  202. relationship
  203. reserves
  204. resistance
  205. resources
  206. response
  207. resulted
  208. rise
  209. risk
  210. scarce
  211. selection
  212. separated
  213. shed
  214. shown
  215. signaling
  216. significant
  217. sizes
  218. slow
  219. socioeconomic
  220. species
  221. steeper
  222. stocking
  223. storage
  224. stores
  225. stroke
  226. studies
  227. substantially
  228. surgery
  229. survival
  230. sustained
  231. systems
  232. tall
  233. technological
  234. ten
  235. time
  236. times
  237. treatments
  238. twins
  239. variations
  240. variety
  241. virtually
  242. waist
  243. waistlines
  244. week
  245. weighs
  246. weight
  247. working
  248. world