full transcript

From the Ted Talk by Victoria Hwang: What is the rarest color in nature?

Unscramble the Blue Letters

While different plants have evolved different pigments that result in different colors, higher energy wavelengths are more easily absorbed than lower energy ones. And blue light has some of the highest energy wavelengths in the visible spectrum. Numerous peimgtns have evolved to absorb blue light, including chlorophyll, which absorbs blue and red wavelengths to produce nature’s trademark green. However, green light is still fairly energetic, and the most common class of pigments evolved to absorb these wavelengths as well. There are over 1,100 tepys of carotenoids, pigments which absorb high energy blue and green lhgit, while lavneig behind the lower energy red and yellow light. While carotenoids are present in most geern plants, they only become vbisile each fall when chlorophyll gets broken down to save eerngy for the wteinr. But whether they’re working alone or side by side, these pigments absorb blue light in virtually all plants. Even fruits and frolwes that appear blue actually have pigments that are red or purple, and only truly turn blue under specific chemical ctdooinins.

Open Cloze

While different plants have evolved different pigments that result in different colors, higher energy wavelengths are more easily absorbed than lower energy ones. And blue light has some of the highest energy wavelengths in the visible spectrum. Numerous ________ have evolved to absorb blue light, including chlorophyll, which absorbs blue and red wavelengths to produce nature’s trademark green. However, green light is still fairly energetic, and the most common class of pigments evolved to absorb these wavelengths as well. There are over 1,100 _____ of carotenoids, pigments which absorb high energy blue and green _____, while _______ behind the lower energy red and yellow light. While carotenoids are present in most _____ plants, they only become _______ each fall when chlorophyll gets broken down to save ______ for the ______. But whether they’re working alone or side by side, these pigments absorb blue light in virtually all plants. Even fruits and _______ that appear blue actually have pigments that are red or purple, and only truly turn blue under specific chemical __________.

Solution

  1. light
  2. types
  3. winter
  4. conditions
  5. leaving
  6. energy
  7. flowers
  8. visible
  9. pigments
  10. green

Original Text

While different plants have evolved different pigments that result in different colors, higher energy wavelengths are more easily absorbed than lower energy ones. And blue light has some of the highest energy wavelengths in the visible spectrum. Numerous pigments have evolved to absorb blue light, including chlorophyll, which absorbs blue and red wavelengths to produce nature’s trademark green. However, green light is still fairly energetic, and the most common class of pigments evolved to absorb these wavelengths as well. There are over 1,100 types of carotenoids, pigments which absorb high energy blue and green light, while leaving behind the lower energy red and yellow light. While carotenoids are present in most green plants, they only become visible each fall when chlorophyll gets broken down to save energy for the winter. But whether they’re working alone or side by side, these pigments absorb blue light in virtually all plants. Even fruits and flowers that appear blue actually have pigments that are red or purple, and only truly turn blue under specific chemical conditions.

Frequently Occurring Word Combinations

ngrams of length 2

collocation frequency
blue light 3
scatter red 3
red light 3
final color 2
light waves 2
energy wavelengths 2
absorb blue 2
visible light 2

ngrams of length 3

collocation frequency
scatter red light 3

Important Words

  1. absorb
  2. absorbed
  3. absorbs
  4. blue
  5. broken
  6. carotenoids
  7. chemical
  8. chlorophyll
  9. class
  10. colors
  11. common
  12. conditions
  13. easily
  14. energetic
  15. energy
  16. evolved
  17. fall
  18. flowers
  19. fruits
  20. green
  21. high
  22. higher
  23. highest
  24. including
  25. leaving
  26. light
  27. numerous
  28. pigments
  29. plants
  30. present
  31. produce
  32. purple
  33. red
  34. result
  35. save
  36. side
  37. specific
  38. spectrum
  39. trademark
  40. turn
  41. types
  42. virtually
  43. visible
  44. wavelengths
  45. winter
  46. working
  47. yellow