full transcript

From the Ted Talk by Jane Goodall: What separates us from chimpanzees?

Unscramble the Blue Letters

Good morning everyone. First of all, it's been fantastic being here over these past few days. And secondly, I feel it's a great honor to kind of wind up this extraordinary gathering of people, these amazing talks that we've had. I feel that I've fitted in, in many ways, to some of the things that I've heard. I came directly here from the deep, deep tropical rainforest in Ecuador, where I was out — you could only get there by a plane — with indigenous people with paint on their faces and parrot ferehtas on their headdresses, where these people are ftngihig to try and keep the oil companies, and keep the raods, out of their forests. They're fighting to deveolp their own way of living within the forest in a world that's clean, a world that isn't contaminated, a world that isn't poleutld. And what was so amazing to me, and what fits right in with what we're all tainklg about here at TED, is that there, right in the middle of this rainforest, was some solar panels — the first in that part of Ecuador — and that was mainly to bring water up by pump so that the women wouldn't have to go down. The water was cleaned, but because they got a lot of batteries, they were able to store a lot of electricity. So every house — and there were, I think, eight heusos in this little community — could have light for, I think it was about half an hour each evening. And there is the Chief, in all his ragel finery, with a laptop computer. (Laughter) And this man, he has been outside, but he's gone back, and he was saying, "You know, we have suddenly jumped into a whole new era, and we didn't even know about the white man 50 years ago, and now here we are with laptop computers, and there are some things we want to leran from the modern world. We want to know about health care. We want to know about what other people do — we're interested in it. And we want to learn other languages. We want to know eslginh and French and perhaps Chinese, and we're good at languages." So there he is with his little laptop computer, but fighting against the might of the pressures — because of the debt, the firogen debt of Ecuador — fighting the pressure of World Bank, IMF, and of course the people who want to exopilt the froests and take out the oil. And so, coming directly from there to here. But, of course, my real field of eseiprxte lies in an even different kind of civilization — I can't really call it a civilization. A different way of life, a different being. We've talked earlier — this wonderful talk by Wade Davis about the different cultures of the humans around the world — but the world is not composed only of human beings; there are also other animal bngeis. And I poropse to bring into this TED conference, as I always do around the world, the voice of the animal kingdom. Too often we just see a few slides, or a bit of film, but these beings have vieocs that mean something. And so, I want to give you a girnteeg, as from a chimpanzee in the forests of Tanzania — Ooh, ooh, ooh, ooh, ooh, ooh, ooh, ooh, ooh, ooh, ooh, ooh, ooh, ooh, ooh! (Applause) I've been studying chimpanzees in Tanzania since 1960. During that time, there have been modern technologies that have really transformed the way that flied biologists do their work. For example, for the first time, a few years ago, by smpliy collecting little fecal samples we were able to have them analyzed — to have DNA profiling done — so for the first time, we actually know which male chimps are the fathers of each individual infant. Because the chimps have a very promiscuous mntiag society. So this opnes up a whole new anuvee of research. And we use GSI — geographic whatever it is, GSI — to determine the range of the chimps. And we're using — you can see that I'm not really into this kind of sfutf — but we're using satellite imagery to look at the deforestation in the area. And of course, there's developments in infrared, so you can wtach animals at night, and eqnmpieut for recording by video, and tape recording is getting lighter and better. So in many, many ways, we can do things today that we couldn't do when I began in 1960. Especially when chimpanzees, and other animals with lgare brains, are studied in captivity, modern technology is helping us to search for the upper levels of cognition in some of these non-human aalinms. So that we know today, they're capable of prncaofremes that would have been thought aebsoltuly impossible by science when I began. I think the chimpanzee in captivity who is the most skilled in intellectual performance is one called Ai in Japan — her name means love — and she has a wonderfully sensitive partner working with her. She loves her computer — she'll leave her big group, and her running water, and her teers and everything. And she'll come in to sit at this computer — it's like a veido game for a kid; she's hooked. She's 28, by the way, and she does things with her cotmeupr screen and a tcouh pad that she can do faster than most humans. She does very complex tasks, and I haven't got time to go into them, but the anziamg thing about this female is she doesn't like minkag mistakes. If she has a bad run, and her score isn't good, she'll come and reach up and tap on the glass — because she can't see the eneeetmixrpr — which is asking to have another go. And her concentration — she's already concentrated hard for 20 minutes or so, and now she wants to do it all over again, just for the soitsaaciftn of having done it better. And the food is not irmotpnat — she does get a tiny reward, like one raisin for a correct response — but she will do it for nothing, if you tell her beforehand. So here we are, a chimpanzee using a computer. Chimpanzees, gorillas, orangutans also learn human sign lnaggaue. But the point is that when I was first in Gombe in 1960 — I remember so well, so vividly, as though it was yesterday — the first time, when I was going through the vegetation, the chimpanzees were still rninnug away from me, for the most part, although some were a little bit acclimatized — and I saw this dark shape, hunched over a termite munod, and I peered with my binoculars. It was, fortunately, one adult male whom I'd named David geyraerbd — and by the way, scnecie at that time was telling me that I shouldn't name the chimps; they should all have numbers; that was more scientific. Anyway, David Greybeard — and I saw that he was picking little pieces of grass and using them to fish termites from their underground nest. And not only that — he would sometimes pick a leafy twig and strip the leaves — modifying an object to make it suitable for a specific purpose — the beginning of tool-making. The reason this was so exciting and such a breakthrough is at that time, it was tughoht that humans, and only humans, used and made tools. When I was at school, we were defined as man, the tooameklr. So that when lious Leakey, my mentor, heard this news, he said, "Ah, we must now rienefde 'man,' redefine 'tool,' or accept chimpanzees as humans." (Laughter) We now know that at gbmoe alone, there are nine different ways in which chimpanzees use different octejbs for different purposes. Moreover, we know that in different parts of Africa, wherever chimps have been studied, there are completely different tool-using baiverohs. And because it seems that these patterns are passed from one generation to the next, through observation, imitation and practice — that is a definition of human culture. What we find is that over these 40-odd years that I and others have been studying chimpanzees and the other graet apes, and, as I say, other mammals with complex brains and social systems, we have found that after all, there isn't a sharp line dividing humans from the rest of the animal kingdom. It's a very wzuzy line. It's getting wuzzier all the time as we find animals doing things that we, in our arrogance, used to think was just haumn. The chimps — there's no time to discuss their facatiinsng lives — but they have this long childhood, five years of suckling and sleeping with the mtehor, and then another three, four or five yreas of emotional dependence on her, even when the next cihld is born. The importance of learning in that time, when behavior is flexible — and there's an awful lot to learn in chimpanzee society. The long-term affectionate supportive bonds that develop throughout this long childhood with the mother, with the brothers and sisters, and which can last through a lifetime, which may be up to 60 years. They can actually live longer than 60 in captivity, so we've only done 40 years in the wild so far. And we find chimps are capable of true cmopsiosan and altruism. We find in their non-verbal communication — this is very rich — they have a lot of sounds, which they use in different circumstances, but they also use touch, posture, gesture, and what do they do? They kiss; they embrace; they hold hands. They pat one another on the back; they swagger; they shake their fist — the kind of things that we do, and they do them in the same kind of context. They have very sophisticated cooperation. Sometimes they hunt — not that often, but when they hunt, they show sophisticated cooperation, and they share the prey. We find that they show emotions, slaimir to — maybe sometimes the same — as those that we describe in ourselves as happiness, sadness, fear, despair. They know mental as well as physical suffering. And I don't have time to go into the information that will prove some of these things to you, save to say that there are very bigrht students, in the best universities, studying emotions in animals, studying personalities in animals. We know that chimpanzees and some other creatures can rinzecoge themselves in mirrors — "self" as opposed to "other." They have a sense of huomr, and these are the kind of things which traditionally have been thought of as human prerogatives. But this taeehcs us a new respect — and it's a new respect not only for the cepiaeznhms, I suggest, but some of the other amazing animals with whom we share this planet. Once we're prpeared to admit that after all, we're not the only beings with personalities, minds and above all feelings, and then we start to think about ways we use and absue so many other sentient, sapenit ceetrarus on this planet, it really gives cause for deep smhae, at least for me. So, the sad thing is that these chimpanzees — who've perhaps taught us, more than any other creature, a little humility — are in the wild, disappearing very fast. They're disappearing for the reasons that all of you in this room know only too well. The droeatiosfetn, the growth of human populations, needing more land. They're disappearing because some timber compaiens go in with clear-cutting. They're disappearing in the heart of their rnage in Africa because the big multinational logging companies have come in and made roads — as they want to do in Ecuador and other parts where the forests rmeian untouched — to take out oil or timber. And this has led in Congo basin, and other prats of the world, to what is known as the bush-meat trade. This manes that although for hundreds, perhaps tnushoads of years, people have lived in those forests, or whatever habitat it is, in harmony with their world, just killing the animals they need for themselves and their families — now, suddenly, because of the roads, the hreutns can go in from the towns. They shoot everything, every single thing that moves that's bigger than a small rat; they sun-dry it or somke it. And now they've got transport; they take it on the logging trucks or the mining trucks into the towns where they sell it. And people will pay more for bush-meat, as it's called, than for domestic meat — it's culturally preferred. And it's not sustainable, and the huge lioggng camps in the forest are now demanding meat, so the Pygmy hunters in the Congo basin who've lived there with their wonderful way of lniivg for so many hddrneus of years are now corrupted. They're given weapons; they shoot for the logging camps; they get moeny. Their culture is being dryetesod, along with the animals upon whom they depend. So, when the logging camp moves, there's nothing left. We talked already about the loss of human cartluul dtseiivry, and I've seen it happening with my own eyes. And the grim picture in Africa — I love Africa, and what do we see in Africa? We see deforestation; we see the deerst spreading; we see mivsase hunger; we see disease and we see ptloapuoin growth in areas where there are more people living on a certain piece of land than the land can ploisbsy support, and they're too poor to buy food from elsewhere. Were the people that we heard about yesterday, on the Easter ialsnd, who cut down their last tree — were they stupid? Didn't they know what was happening? Of course, but if you've seen the crpinplig poverty in some of these parts of the world it isn't a question of "Let's leave the tree for tomorrow." "How am I going to feed my family today? Maybe I can get just a few dollars from this last tree which will keep us going a little bit longer, and then we'll pray that something will happen to save us from the inevitable end." So, this is a pretty grim picture. The one thing we have, which makes us so different from chimpanzees or other living creatures, is this stiseahicpotd spoken language — a language with which we can tell children about things that aren't here. We can talk about the distant past, plan for the distant future, discuss iedas with each other, so that the ideas can grow from the accumulated wosidm of a group. We can do it by talking to each other; we can do it through video; we can do it through the wteitrn word. And we are abusing this great power we have to be wise stewards, and we're dyteonrsig the world. In the developed world, in a way, it's worse, because we have so much access to knowledge of the stupidity of what we're doing. Do you know, we're bringnig little babies into a world where, in many places, the weatr is poisoning them? And the air is hnmarig them, and the food that's grown from the contaminated land is poinoisng them. And that's not just in the far-away developing world; that's everywhere. Do you know we all have about 50 chemicals in our bdioes we didn't have about 50 years ago? And so many of these diseases, like asthma and certain kinds of cancers, are on the increase around places where our filthy toxic waste is dumped. We're harming ourselves around the world, as well as harming the animals, as well as harming nutare herself — Mother Nature, that bguohrt us into being; Mother Nature, where I believe we need to spend time, where there's trees and flowers and birds for our good psychological development. And yet, there are hundreds and hundreds of children in the developed world who never see nature, because they're growing up in concrete and all they know is virtual reality, with no opportunity to go and lie in the sun, or in the forest, with the dlpeapd sun-specks coming down from the canopy above. As I was traveling around the world, you know, I had to leave the forest — that's where I love to be. I had to leave these fascinating chimpanzees for my students and field staff to continue studying because, finding they dwindled from about two million 100 years ago to about 150,000 now, I knew I had to leave the forest to do what I could to raise awareness around the world. And the more I talked about the chimpanzees' plight, the more I realized the fact that everything's intceneeotcnrd, and the problems of the developing world so often stem from the greed of the developed world, and everything was joining together, and making — not sense, hope lies in sesne, you said — it's making a nonsense. How can we do it? Somebody said that yredsetay. And as I was traveling around, I kept mienetg ynuog people who'd lost hope. They were feeling despair, they were feeling, "Well, it doesn't meattr what we do; eat, drink and be merry, for tomorrow we die. Everything is hopeless — we're always being told so by the media." And then I met some who were angry, and anger that can turn to violence, and we're all fiailamr with that. And I have three little gnaelrhriddcn, and when some of these stenudts would say to me at high school or utvnrisiey, they'd say, "We're angry," or "We're fellid with despair, because we feel you've compromised our future, and there's nothing we can do about it." And I looked in the eyes of my little grandchildren, and think how much we've harmed this planet since I was their age. I feel this deep shame, and that's why in 1991 in Tanzania, I started a porgram that's called Roots and Shoots. There's little breurcohs all around outside, and if any of you have anything to do with children and care about their future, I beg that you pick up that brochure. And Roots and Shoots is a program for hope. Roots make a firm foundation. Shoots seem tiny, but to rceah the sun they can break through brick wllas. See the bicrk walls as all the problems that we've inflicted on this planet. Then, you see, it is a message of hope. Hundreds and thousands of young people around the world can break through, and can make this a better wrlod. And the most important message of Roots and Shoots is that every snlgie individual makes a dinffercee. Every individual has a role to play. Every one of us impacts the world around us everyday, and you scientists know that you can't actually — even if you stay in bed all day, you're baenhirtg oegxyn and giving out CO2, and probably going to the loo, and things like that — you're making a difference in the world. So, the rotos and Shoots program involves youth in three kinds of projects. And these are projects to make the world around them a better place. One project to show care and cronecn for your own human community. One for animals, inildnucg dmeoitsc animals — and I have to say, I lnraeed everything I know about animal biaeohvr even before I got to Gombe and the chimps from my dog, Rusty, who was my chhdoliod companion. And the third kind of project: something for the local environment. So what the kids do ddeneps first of all, how old are they — and we go now from pre-school right through university. It's going to depend whether they're inner-city or rural. It's going to dpened if they're wealthy or impoverished. It's going to depend which part, say, of America they're in. We're in every satte now, and the problems in Florida are different from the problems in New York. It's going to depend on which country they're in — and we're already in 60-plus countries, with about 5,000 active guoprs — and there are groups all over the palce that I keep hearing about that I've never even heard of, because the kids are taking the program and spreading it themselves. Why? Because they're buying into it, and they're the ones who get to decide what they're going to do. It isn't something that their parents tell them, or their teachers tell them. That's effective, but if they ddicee themselves, "We want to clean this revir and put the fish back that used to be there. We want to clear away the toxic soil from this area and have an organic garden. We want to go and spend time with the old people and hear their siteors and record their oral histories. We want to go and work in a dog shelter. We want to learn about animals. We want ... " You know, it goes on and on, and this is very hopeful for me. As I travel around the world 300 days a year, everywhere there's a group of Roots and Shoots of different ages. Everywhere there are children with shining eyes saying, "Look at the difference we've made." And now comes the technology into it, because with this new way of communicating electronically these kids can communicate with each other around the world. And if anyone is interested to help us, we've got so many ideas but we need help — we need help to carete the right kind of stesym that will help these young people to communicate their excitement. But also — and this is so important — to communicate their diapesr, to say, "We've tried this and it doesn't work, and what shall we do?" And then, lo and bheold, there's another group aneinwrsg these kids who may be in America, or maybe this is a group in Israel, saying, "Yeah, you did it a little bit wrong. This is how you should do it." The philosophy is very simple. We do not believe in violence. No violence, no bombs, no guns. That's not the way to solve problems. Violence leads to violence, at least in my view. So how do we solve? The tools for solving the problems are knowledge and udnannresdtig. Know the facts, but see how they fit in the big pructie. Hard work and persistence —don't give up — and love and compassion leading to repscet for all life. How many more mutines? Two, one? cihrs Anderson: One — one to two. Jane Goodall: Two, two, I'm going to take two. (Laughter) Are you going to come and drag me off? (Laughter) Anyway — so basically, Roots and Shoots is binngenig to change young people's lives. It's what I'm devoting most of my energy to. And I believe that a gourp like this can have a very major imacpt, not just because you can share technology with us, but because so many of you have clirehdn. And if you take this program out, and give it to your children, they have such a good opportunity to go out and do good, because they've got pneatrs like you. And it's been so caelr how much you all care about trying to make this world a better place. It's very enguorcaing. But the kids do ask me — and this won't take more than two minutes, I promise — the kids say, "Dr. Jane, do you really have hope for the fuutre? You travel, you see all these hlbroire things happening." Firstly, the human biarn — I don't need to say anything about that. Now that we know what the problems are around the world, human brains like yours are rising to solve those peorblms. And we've talked a lot about that. Secondly, the resilience of nature. We can destroy a river, and we can bring it back to life. We can see a whole area desolated, and it can be brought back to bloom again, with time or a little help. And thidlry, the last speaker talked about — or the speaker before last, talked about the indomitable human spirit. We are surrounded by the most amazing polepe who do things that seem to be absolutely impossible. Nelson Mandela — I take a little piece of limestone from roebbn Island pisorn, where he labored for 27 years, and came out with so little bitterness, he could lead his people from the horror of apartheid without a bloodbath. Even after the 11th of sbpeemetr — and I was in New York and I felt the fear — nevertheless, there was so much human courage, so much love and so much compassion. And then as I went around the country after that and felt the fear — the fear that was leading to people feeling they couldn't worry about the environment any more, in case they seemed not to be patriotic — and I was trying to encourage them, somebody came up with a little quotation from Mahatma gnahdi, "If you look back through human history, you see that every evil regime has been overcome by good." And just after that a woman brought me this little bell, and I want to end on this note. She said, "If you're talking about hope and peace, ring this. This bell is made from metal from a defused landmine, from the killing fields of Pol Pot — one of the most evil regimes in human history — where people are now beginning to put their lives back together after the rgimee has crumbled. So, yes, there is hope, and where is the hope? Is it out there with the politicians? It's in our hands. It's in your hands and my hands and those of our children. It's really up to us. We're the ones who can make a difference. If we lead levis where we consciously leave the lightset possible ecoiaglcol footprints, if we buy the things that are ethical for us to buy and don't buy the things that are not, we can change the world overnight. Thank you.

Open Cloze

Good morning everyone. First of all, it's been fantastic being here over these past few days. And secondly, I feel it's a great honor to kind of wind up this extraordinary gathering of people, these amazing talks that we've had. I feel that I've fitted in, in many ways, to some of the things that I've heard. I came directly here from the deep, deep tropical rainforest in Ecuador, where I was out — you could only get there by a plane — with indigenous people with paint on their faces and parrot ________ on their headdresses, where these people are ________ to try and keep the oil companies, and keep the _____, out of their forests. They're fighting to _______ their own way of living within the forest in a world that's clean, a world that isn't contaminated, a world that isn't ________. And what was so amazing to me, and what fits right in with what we're all _______ about here at TED, is that there, right in the middle of this rainforest, was some solar panels — the first in that part of Ecuador — and that was mainly to bring water up by pump so that the women wouldn't have to go down. The water was cleaned, but because they got a lot of batteries, they were able to store a lot of electricity. So every house — and there were, I think, eight ______ in this little community — could have light for, I think it was about half an hour each evening. And there is the Chief, in all his _____ finery, with a laptop computer. (Laughter) And this man, he has been outside, but he's gone back, and he was saying, "You know, we have suddenly jumped into a whole new era, and we didn't even know about the white man 50 years ago, and now here we are with laptop computers, and there are some things we want to _____ from the modern world. We want to know about health care. We want to know about what other people do — we're interested in it. And we want to learn other languages. We want to know _______ and French and perhaps Chinese, and we're good at languages." So there he is with his little laptop computer, but fighting against the might of the pressures — because of the debt, the _______ debt of Ecuador — fighting the pressure of World Bank, IMF, and of course the people who want to _______ the _______ and take out the oil. And so, coming directly from there to here. But, of course, my real field of _________ lies in an even different kind of civilization — I can't really call it a civilization. A different way of life, a different being. We've talked earlier — this wonderful talk by Wade Davis about the different cultures of the humans around the world — but the world is not composed only of human beings; there are also other animal ______. And I _______ to bring into this TED conference, as I always do around the world, the voice of the animal kingdom. Too often we just see a few slides, or a bit of film, but these beings have ______ that mean something. And so, I want to give you a ________, as from a chimpanzee in the forests of Tanzania — Ooh, ooh, ooh, ooh, ooh, ooh, ooh, ooh, ooh, ooh, ooh, ooh, ooh, ooh, ooh! (Applause) I've been studying chimpanzees in Tanzania since 1960. During that time, there have been modern technologies that have really transformed the way that _____ biologists do their work. For example, for the first time, a few years ago, by ______ collecting little fecal samples we were able to have them analyzed — to have DNA profiling done — so for the first time, we actually know which male chimps are the fathers of each individual infant. Because the chimps have a very promiscuous ______ society. So this _____ up a whole new ______ of research. And we use GSI — geographic whatever it is, GSI — to determine the range of the chimps. And we're using — you can see that I'm not really into this kind of _____ — but we're using satellite imagery to look at the deforestation in the area. And of course, there's developments in infrared, so you can _____ animals at night, and _________ for recording by video, and tape recording is getting lighter and better. So in many, many ways, we can do things today that we couldn't do when I began in 1960. Especially when chimpanzees, and other animals with _____ brains, are studied in captivity, modern technology is helping us to search for the upper levels of cognition in some of these non-human _______. So that we know today, they're capable of ____________ that would have been thought __________ impossible by science when I began. I think the chimpanzee in captivity who is the most skilled in intellectual performance is one called Ai in Japan — her name means love — and she has a wonderfully sensitive partner working with her. She loves her computer — she'll leave her big group, and her running water, and her _____ and everything. And she'll come in to sit at this computer — it's like a _____ game for a kid; she's hooked. She's 28, by the way, and she does things with her ________ screen and a _____ pad that she can do faster than most humans. She does very complex tasks, and I haven't got time to go into them, but the _______ thing about this female is she doesn't like ______ mistakes. If she has a bad run, and her score isn't good, she'll come and reach up and tap on the glass — because she can't see the ____________ — which is asking to have another go. And her concentration — she's already concentrated hard for 20 minutes or so, and now she wants to do it all over again, just for the ____________ of having done it better. And the food is not _________ — she does get a tiny reward, like one raisin for a correct response — but she will do it for nothing, if you tell her beforehand. So here we are, a chimpanzee using a computer. Chimpanzees, gorillas, orangutans also learn human sign ________. But the point is that when I was first in Gombe in 1960 — I remember so well, so vividly, as though it was yesterday — the first time, when I was going through the vegetation, the chimpanzees were still _______ away from me, for the most part, although some were a little bit acclimatized — and I saw this dark shape, hunched over a termite _____, and I peered with my binoculars. It was, fortunately, one adult male whom I'd named David _________ — and by the way, _______ at that time was telling me that I shouldn't name the chimps; they should all have numbers; that was more scientific. Anyway, David Greybeard — and I saw that he was picking little pieces of grass and using them to fish termites from their underground nest. And not only that — he would sometimes pick a leafy twig and strip the leaves — modifying an object to make it suitable for a specific purpose — the beginning of tool-making. The reason this was so exciting and such a breakthrough is at that time, it was _______ that humans, and only humans, used and made tools. When I was at school, we were defined as man, the _________. So that when _____ Leakey, my mentor, heard this news, he said, "Ah, we must now ________ 'man,' redefine 'tool,' or accept chimpanzees as humans." (Laughter) We now know that at _____ alone, there are nine different ways in which chimpanzees use different _______ for different purposes. Moreover, we know that in different parts of Africa, wherever chimps have been studied, there are completely different tool-using _________. And because it seems that these patterns are passed from one generation to the next, through observation, imitation and practice — that is a definition of human culture. What we find is that over these 40-odd years that I and others have been studying chimpanzees and the other _____ apes, and, as I say, other mammals with complex brains and social systems, we have found that after all, there isn't a sharp line dividing humans from the rest of the animal kingdom. It's a very _____ line. It's getting wuzzier all the time as we find animals doing things that we, in our arrogance, used to think was just _____. The chimps — there's no time to discuss their ___________ lives — but they have this long childhood, five years of suckling and sleeping with the ______, and then another three, four or five _____ of emotional dependence on her, even when the next _____ is born. The importance of learning in that time, when behavior is flexible — and there's an awful lot to learn in chimpanzee society. The long-term affectionate supportive bonds that develop throughout this long childhood with the mother, with the brothers and sisters, and which can last through a lifetime, which may be up to 60 years. They can actually live longer than 60 in captivity, so we've only done 40 years in the wild so far. And we find chimps are capable of true __________ and altruism. We find in their non-verbal communication — this is very rich — they have a lot of sounds, which they use in different circumstances, but they also use touch, posture, gesture, and what do they do? They kiss; they embrace; they hold hands. They pat one another on the back; they swagger; they shake their fist — the kind of things that we do, and they do them in the same kind of context. They have very sophisticated cooperation. Sometimes they hunt — not that often, but when they hunt, they show sophisticated cooperation, and they share the prey. We find that they show emotions, _______ to — maybe sometimes the same — as those that we describe in ourselves as happiness, sadness, fear, despair. They know mental as well as physical suffering. And I don't have time to go into the information that will prove some of these things to you, save to say that there are very ______ students, in the best universities, studying emotions in animals, studying personalities in animals. We know that chimpanzees and some other creatures can _________ themselves in mirrors — "self" as opposed to "other." They have a sense of _____, and these are the kind of things which traditionally have been thought of as human prerogatives. But this _______ us a new respect — and it's a new respect not only for the ___________, I suggest, but some of the other amazing animals with whom we share this planet. Once we're ________ to admit that after all, we're not the only beings with personalities, minds and above all feelings, and then we start to think about ways we use and _____ so many other sentient, _______ _________ on this planet, it really gives cause for deep _____, at least for me. So, the sad thing is that these chimpanzees — who've perhaps taught us, more than any other creature, a little humility — are in the wild, disappearing very fast. They're disappearing for the reasons that all of you in this room know only too well. The _____________, the growth of human populations, needing more land. They're disappearing because some timber _________ go in with clear-cutting. They're disappearing in the heart of their _____ in Africa because the big multinational logging companies have come in and made roads — as they want to do in Ecuador and other parts where the forests ______ untouched — to take out oil or timber. And this has led in Congo basin, and other _____ of the world, to what is known as the bush-meat trade. This _____ that although for hundreds, perhaps _________ of years, people have lived in those forests, or whatever habitat it is, in harmony with their world, just killing the animals they need for themselves and their families — now, suddenly, because of the roads, the _______ can go in from the towns. They shoot everything, every single thing that moves that's bigger than a small rat; they sun-dry it or _____ it. And now they've got transport; they take it on the logging trucks or the mining trucks into the towns where they sell it. And people will pay more for bush-meat, as it's called, than for domestic meat — it's culturally preferred. And it's not sustainable, and the huge _______ camps in the forest are now demanding meat, so the Pygmy hunters in the Congo basin who've lived there with their wonderful way of ______ for so many ________ of years are now corrupted. They're given weapons; they shoot for the logging camps; they get _____. Their culture is being _________, along with the animals upon whom they depend. So, when the logging camp moves, there's nothing left. We talked already about the loss of human ________ _________, and I've seen it happening with my own eyes. And the grim picture in Africa — I love Africa, and what do we see in Africa? We see deforestation; we see the ______ spreading; we see _______ hunger; we see disease and we see __________ growth in areas where there are more people living on a certain piece of land than the land can ________ support, and they're too poor to buy food from elsewhere. Were the people that we heard about yesterday, on the Easter ______, who cut down their last tree — were they stupid? Didn't they know what was happening? Of course, but if you've seen the _________ poverty in some of these parts of the world it isn't a question of "Let's leave the tree for tomorrow." "How am I going to feed my family today? Maybe I can get just a few dollars from this last tree which will keep us going a little bit longer, and then we'll pray that something will happen to save us from the inevitable end." So, this is a pretty grim picture. The one thing we have, which makes us so different from chimpanzees or other living creatures, is this _____________ spoken language — a language with which we can tell children about things that aren't here. We can talk about the distant past, plan for the distant future, discuss _____ with each other, so that the ideas can grow from the accumulated ______ of a group. We can do it by talking to each other; we can do it through video; we can do it through the _______ word. And we are abusing this great power we have to be wise stewards, and we're __________ the world. In the developed world, in a way, it's worse, because we have so much access to knowledge of the stupidity of what we're doing. Do you know, we're ________ little babies into a world where, in many places, the _____ is poisoning them? And the air is _______ them, and the food that's grown from the contaminated land is _________ them. And that's not just in the far-away developing world; that's everywhere. Do you know we all have about 50 chemicals in our ______ we didn't have about 50 years ago? And so many of these diseases, like asthma and certain kinds of cancers, are on the increase around places where our filthy toxic waste is dumped. We're harming ourselves around the world, as well as harming the animals, as well as harming ______ herself — Mother Nature, that _______ us into being; Mother Nature, where I believe we need to spend time, where there's trees and flowers and birds for our good psychological development. And yet, there are hundreds and hundreds of children in the developed world who never see nature, because they're growing up in concrete and all they know is virtual reality, with no opportunity to go and lie in the sun, or in the forest, with the _______ sun-specks coming down from the canopy above. As I was traveling around the world, you know, I had to leave the forest — that's where I love to be. I had to leave these fascinating chimpanzees for my students and field staff to continue studying because, finding they dwindled from about two million 100 years ago to about 150,000 now, I knew I had to leave the forest to do what I could to raise awareness around the world. And the more I talked about the chimpanzees' plight, the more I realized the fact that everything's ______________, and the problems of the developing world so often stem from the greed of the developed world, and everything was joining together, and making — not sense, hope lies in _____, you said — it's making a nonsense. How can we do it? Somebody said that _________. And as I was traveling around, I kept _______ _____ people who'd lost hope. They were feeling despair, they were feeling, "Well, it doesn't ______ what we do; eat, drink and be merry, for tomorrow we die. Everything is hopeless — we're always being told so by the media." And then I met some who were angry, and anger that can turn to violence, and we're all ________ with that. And I have three little _____________, and when some of these ________ would say to me at high school or __________, they'd say, "We're angry," or "We're ______ with despair, because we feel you've compromised our future, and there's nothing we can do about it." And I looked in the eyes of my little grandchildren, and think how much we've harmed this planet since I was their age. I feel this deep shame, and that's why in 1991 in Tanzania, I started a _______ that's called Roots and Shoots. There's little _________ all around outside, and if any of you have anything to do with children and care about their future, I beg that you pick up that brochure. And Roots and Shoots is a program for hope. Roots make a firm foundation. Shoots seem tiny, but to _____ the sun they can break through brick _____. See the _____ walls as all the problems that we've inflicted on this planet. Then, you see, it is a message of hope. Hundreds and thousands of young people around the world can break through, and can make this a better _____. And the most important message of Roots and Shoots is that every ______ individual makes a __________. Every individual has a role to play. Every one of us impacts the world around us everyday, and you scientists know that you can't actually — even if you stay in bed all day, you're _________ ______ and giving out CO2, and probably going to the loo, and things like that — you're making a difference in the world. So, the _____ and Shoots program involves youth in three kinds of projects. And these are projects to make the world around them a better place. One project to show care and _______ for your own human community. One for animals, _________ ________ animals — and I have to say, I _______ everything I know about animal ________ even before I got to Gombe and the chimps from my dog, Rusty, who was my _________ companion. And the third kind of project: something for the local environment. So what the kids do _______ first of all, how old are they — and we go now from pre-school right through university. It's going to depend whether they're inner-city or rural. It's going to ______ if they're wealthy or impoverished. It's going to depend which part, say, of America they're in. We're in every _____ now, and the problems in Florida are different from the problems in New York. It's going to depend on which country they're in — and we're already in 60-plus countries, with about 5,000 active ______ — and there are groups all over the _____ that I keep hearing about that I've never even heard of, because the kids are taking the program and spreading it themselves. Why? Because they're buying into it, and they're the ones who get to decide what they're going to do. It isn't something that their parents tell them, or their teachers tell them. That's effective, but if they ______ themselves, "We want to clean this _____ and put the fish back that used to be there. We want to clear away the toxic soil from this area and have an organic garden. We want to go and spend time with the old people and hear their _______ and record their oral histories. We want to go and work in a dog shelter. We want to learn about animals. We want ... " You know, it goes on and on, and this is very hopeful for me. As I travel around the world 300 days a year, everywhere there's a group of Roots and Shoots of different ages. Everywhere there are children with shining eyes saying, "Look at the difference we've made." And now comes the technology into it, because with this new way of communicating electronically these kids can communicate with each other around the world. And if anyone is interested to help us, we've got so many ideas but we need help — we need help to ______ the right kind of ______ that will help these young people to communicate their excitement. But also — and this is so important — to communicate their _______, to say, "We've tried this and it doesn't work, and what shall we do?" And then, lo and ______, there's another group _________ these kids who may be in America, or maybe this is a group in Israel, saying, "Yeah, you did it a little bit wrong. This is how you should do it." The philosophy is very simple. We do not believe in violence. No violence, no bombs, no guns. That's not the way to solve problems. Violence leads to violence, at least in my view. So how do we solve? The tools for solving the problems are knowledge and _____________. Know the facts, but see how they fit in the big _______. Hard work and persistence —don't give up — and love and compassion leading to _______ for all life. How many more _______? Two, one? _____ Anderson: One — one to two. Jane Goodall: Two, two, I'm going to take two. (Laughter) Are you going to come and drag me off? (Laughter) Anyway — so basically, Roots and Shoots is _________ to change young people's lives. It's what I'm devoting most of my energy to. And I believe that a _____ like this can have a very major ______, not just because you can share technology with us, but because so many of you have ________. And if you take this program out, and give it to your children, they have such a good opportunity to go out and do good, because they've got _______ like you. And it's been so _____ how much you all care about trying to make this world a better place. It's very ___________. But the kids do ask me — and this won't take more than two minutes, I promise — the kids say, "Dr. Jane, do you really have hope for the ______? You travel, you see all these ________ things happening." Firstly, the human _____ — I don't need to say anything about that. Now that we know what the problems are around the world, human brains like yours are rising to solve those ________. And we've talked a lot about that. Secondly, the resilience of nature. We can destroy a river, and we can bring it back to life. We can see a whole area desolated, and it can be brought back to bloom again, with time or a little help. And _______, the last speaker talked about — or the speaker before last, talked about the indomitable human spirit. We are surrounded by the most amazing ______ who do things that seem to be absolutely impossible. Nelson Mandela — I take a little piece of limestone from ______ Island ______, where he labored for 27 years, and came out with so little bitterness, he could lead his people from the horror of apartheid without a bloodbath. Even after the 11th of _________ — and I was in New York and I felt the fear — nevertheless, there was so much human courage, so much love and so much compassion. And then as I went around the country after that and felt the fear — the fear that was leading to people feeling they couldn't worry about the environment any more, in case they seemed not to be patriotic — and I was trying to encourage them, somebody came up with a little quotation from Mahatma ______, "If you look back through human history, you see that every evil regime has been overcome by good." And just after that a woman brought me this little bell, and I want to end on this note. She said, "If you're talking about hope and peace, ring this. This bell is made from metal from a defused landmine, from the killing fields of Pol Pot — one of the most evil regimes in human history — where people are now beginning to put their lives back together after the ______ has crumbled. So, yes, there is hope, and where is the hope? Is it out there with the politicians? It's in our hands. It's in your hands and my hands and those of our children. It's really up to us. We're the ones who can make a difference. If we lead _____ where we consciously leave the ________ possible __________ footprints, if we buy the things that are ethical for us to buy and don't buy the things that are not, we can change the world overnight. Thank you.

Solution

  1. sapient
  2. brought
  3. state
  4. sense
  5. harming
  6. destroying
  7. written
  8. making
  9. meeting
  10. system
  11. thought
  12. human
  13. learn
  14. simply
  15. touch
  16. great
  17. group
  18. parents
  19. horrible
  20. english
  21. mother
  22. running
  23. answering
  24. logging
  25. wisdom
  26. trees
  27. encouraging
  28. years
  29. recognize
  30. problems
  31. abuse
  32. chimpanzees
  33. forests
  34. regal
  35. students
  36. gandhi
  37. chris
  38. grandchildren
  39. range
  40. decide
  41. shame
  42. lives
  43. groups
  44. exploit
  45. childhood
  46. propose
  47. teaches
  48. stuff
  49. yesterday
  50. september
  51. clear
  52. toolmaker
  53. child
  54. humor
  55. interconnected
  56. nature
  57. bringing
  58. equipment
  59. experimenter
  60. including
  61. poisoning
  62. breathing
  63. similar
  64. university
  65. behavior
  66. objects
  67. behaviors
  68. regime
  69. respect
  70. computer
  71. louis
  72. crippling
  73. beings
  74. beginning
  75. program
  76. animals
  77. desert
  78. filled
  79. language
  80. ecological
  81. money
  82. fighting
  83. satisfaction
  84. amazing
  85. lightest
  86. mound
  87. opens
  88. familiar
  89. impact
  90. hunters
  91. greybeard
  92. performances
  93. learned
  94. deforestation
  95. robben
  96. watch
  97. companies
  98. greeting
  99. despair
  100. redefine
  101. mating
  102. important
  103. avenue
  104. cultural
  105. voices
  106. brochures
  107. large
  108. hundreds
  109. brain
  110. expertise
  111. stories
  112. talking
  113. prepared
  114. difference
  115. children
  116. behold
  117. thousands
  118. field
  119. single
  120. roots
  121. picture
  122. creatures
  123. ideas
  124. roads
  125. future
  126. brick
  127. absolutely
  128. video
  129. parts
  130. polluted
  131. concern
  132. place
  133. massive
  134. walls
  135. people
  136. gombe
  137. world
  138. wuzzy
  139. prison
  140. population
  141. houses
  142. reach
  143. compassion
  144. thirdly
  145. bright
  146. young
  147. sophisticated
  148. destroyed
  149. dappled
  150. fascinating
  151. possibly
  152. science
  153. depends
  154. means
  155. remain
  156. feathers
  157. smoke
  158. oxygen
  159. understanding
  160. develop
  161. water
  162. living
  163. create
  164. diversity
  165. matter
  166. domestic
  167. foreign
  168. minutes
  169. depend
  170. river
  171. island
  172. bodies

Original Text

Good morning everyone. First of all, it's been fantastic being here over these past few days. And secondly, I feel it's a great honor to kind of wind up this extraordinary gathering of people, these amazing talks that we've had. I feel that I've fitted in, in many ways, to some of the things that I've heard. I came directly here from the deep, deep tropical rainforest in Ecuador, where I was out — you could only get there by a plane — with indigenous people with paint on their faces and parrot feathers on their headdresses, where these people are fighting to try and keep the oil companies, and keep the roads, out of their forests. They're fighting to develop their own way of living within the forest in a world that's clean, a world that isn't contaminated, a world that isn't polluted. And what was so amazing to me, and what fits right in with what we're all talking about here at TED, is that there, right in the middle of this rainforest, was some solar panels — the first in that part of Ecuador — and that was mainly to bring water up by pump so that the women wouldn't have to go down. The water was cleaned, but because they got a lot of batteries, they were able to store a lot of electricity. So every house — and there were, I think, eight houses in this little community — could have light for, I think it was about half an hour each evening. And there is the Chief, in all his regal finery, with a laptop computer. (Laughter) And this man, he has been outside, but he's gone back, and he was saying, "You know, we have suddenly jumped into a whole new era, and we didn't even know about the white man 50 years ago, and now here we are with laptop computers, and there are some things we want to learn from the modern world. We want to know about health care. We want to know about what other people do — we're interested in it. And we want to learn other languages. We want to know English and French and perhaps Chinese, and we're good at languages." So there he is with his little laptop computer, but fighting against the might of the pressures — because of the debt, the foreign debt of Ecuador — fighting the pressure of World Bank, IMF, and of course the people who want to exploit the forests and take out the oil. And so, coming directly from there to here. But, of course, my real field of expertise lies in an even different kind of civilization — I can't really call it a civilization. A different way of life, a different being. We've talked earlier — this wonderful talk by Wade Davis about the different cultures of the humans around the world — but the world is not composed only of human beings; there are also other animal beings. And I propose to bring into this TED conference, as I always do around the world, the voice of the animal kingdom. Too often we just see a few slides, or a bit of film, but these beings have voices that mean something. And so, I want to give you a greeting, as from a chimpanzee in the forests of Tanzania — Ooh, ooh, ooh, ooh, ooh, ooh, ooh, ooh, ooh, ooh, ooh, ooh, ooh, ooh, ooh! (Applause) I've been studying chimpanzees in Tanzania since 1960. During that time, there have been modern technologies that have really transformed the way that field biologists do their work. For example, for the first time, a few years ago, by simply collecting little fecal samples we were able to have them analyzed — to have DNA profiling done — so for the first time, we actually know which male chimps are the fathers of each individual infant. Because the chimps have a very promiscuous mating society. So this opens up a whole new avenue of research. And we use GSI — geographic whatever it is, GSI — to determine the range of the chimps. And we're using — you can see that I'm not really into this kind of stuff — but we're using satellite imagery to look at the deforestation in the area. And of course, there's developments in infrared, so you can watch animals at night, and equipment for recording by video, and tape recording is getting lighter and better. So in many, many ways, we can do things today that we couldn't do when I began in 1960. Especially when chimpanzees, and other animals with large brains, are studied in captivity, modern technology is helping us to search for the upper levels of cognition in some of these non-human animals. So that we know today, they're capable of performances that would have been thought absolutely impossible by science when I began. I think the chimpanzee in captivity who is the most skilled in intellectual performance is one called Ai in Japan — her name means love — and she has a wonderfully sensitive partner working with her. She loves her computer — she'll leave her big group, and her running water, and her trees and everything. And she'll come in to sit at this computer — it's like a video game for a kid; she's hooked. She's 28, by the way, and she does things with her computer screen and a touch pad that she can do faster than most humans. She does very complex tasks, and I haven't got time to go into them, but the amazing thing about this female is she doesn't like making mistakes. If she has a bad run, and her score isn't good, she'll come and reach up and tap on the glass — because she can't see the experimenter — which is asking to have another go. And her concentration — she's already concentrated hard for 20 minutes or so, and now she wants to do it all over again, just for the satisfaction of having done it better. And the food is not important — she does get a tiny reward, like one raisin for a correct response — but she will do it for nothing, if you tell her beforehand. So here we are, a chimpanzee using a computer. Chimpanzees, gorillas, orangutans also learn human sign language. But the point is that when I was first in Gombe in 1960 — I remember so well, so vividly, as though it was yesterday — the first time, when I was going through the vegetation, the chimpanzees were still running away from me, for the most part, although some were a little bit acclimatized — and I saw this dark shape, hunched over a termite mound, and I peered with my binoculars. It was, fortunately, one adult male whom I'd named David Greybeard — and by the way, science at that time was telling me that I shouldn't name the chimps; they should all have numbers; that was more scientific. Anyway, David Greybeard — and I saw that he was picking little pieces of grass and using them to fish termites from their underground nest. And not only that — he would sometimes pick a leafy twig and strip the leaves — modifying an object to make it suitable for a specific purpose — the beginning of tool-making. The reason this was so exciting and such a breakthrough is at that time, it was thought that humans, and only humans, used and made tools. When I was at school, we were defined as man, the toolmaker. So that when Louis Leakey, my mentor, heard this news, he said, "Ah, we must now redefine 'man,' redefine 'tool,' or accept chimpanzees as humans." (Laughter) We now know that at Gombe alone, there are nine different ways in which chimpanzees use different objects for different purposes. Moreover, we know that in different parts of Africa, wherever chimps have been studied, there are completely different tool-using behaviors. And because it seems that these patterns are passed from one generation to the next, through observation, imitation and practice — that is a definition of human culture. What we find is that over these 40-odd years that I and others have been studying chimpanzees and the other great apes, and, as I say, other mammals with complex brains and social systems, we have found that after all, there isn't a sharp line dividing humans from the rest of the animal kingdom. It's a very wuzzy line. It's getting wuzzier all the time as we find animals doing things that we, in our arrogance, used to think was just human. The chimps — there's no time to discuss their fascinating lives — but they have this long childhood, five years of suckling and sleeping with the mother, and then another three, four or five years of emotional dependence on her, even when the next child is born. The importance of learning in that time, when behavior is flexible — and there's an awful lot to learn in chimpanzee society. The long-term affectionate supportive bonds that develop throughout this long childhood with the mother, with the brothers and sisters, and which can last through a lifetime, which may be up to 60 years. They can actually live longer than 60 in captivity, so we've only done 40 years in the wild so far. And we find chimps are capable of true compassion and altruism. We find in their non-verbal communication — this is very rich — they have a lot of sounds, which they use in different circumstances, but they also use touch, posture, gesture, and what do they do? They kiss; they embrace; they hold hands. They pat one another on the back; they swagger; they shake their fist — the kind of things that we do, and they do them in the same kind of context. They have very sophisticated cooperation. Sometimes they hunt — not that often, but when they hunt, they show sophisticated cooperation, and they share the prey. We find that they show emotions, similar to — maybe sometimes the same — as those that we describe in ourselves as happiness, sadness, fear, despair. They know mental as well as physical suffering. And I don't have time to go into the information that will prove some of these things to you, save to say that there are very bright students, in the best universities, studying emotions in animals, studying personalities in animals. We know that chimpanzees and some other creatures can recognize themselves in mirrors — "self" as opposed to "other." They have a sense of humor, and these are the kind of things which traditionally have been thought of as human prerogatives. But this teaches us a new respect — and it's a new respect not only for the chimpanzees, I suggest, but some of the other amazing animals with whom we share this planet. Once we're prepared to admit that after all, we're not the only beings with personalities, minds and above all feelings, and then we start to think about ways we use and abuse so many other sentient, sapient creatures on this planet, it really gives cause for deep shame, at least for me. So, the sad thing is that these chimpanzees — who've perhaps taught us, more than any other creature, a little humility — are in the wild, disappearing very fast. They're disappearing for the reasons that all of you in this room know only too well. The deforestation, the growth of human populations, needing more land. They're disappearing because some timber companies go in with clear-cutting. They're disappearing in the heart of their range in Africa because the big multinational logging companies have come in and made roads — as they want to do in Ecuador and other parts where the forests remain untouched — to take out oil or timber. And this has led in Congo basin, and other parts of the world, to what is known as the bush-meat trade. This means that although for hundreds, perhaps thousands of years, people have lived in those forests, or whatever habitat it is, in harmony with their world, just killing the animals they need for themselves and their families — now, suddenly, because of the roads, the hunters can go in from the towns. They shoot everything, every single thing that moves that's bigger than a small rat; they sun-dry it or smoke it. And now they've got transport; they take it on the logging trucks or the mining trucks into the towns where they sell it. And people will pay more for bush-meat, as it's called, than for domestic meat — it's culturally preferred. And it's not sustainable, and the huge logging camps in the forest are now demanding meat, so the Pygmy hunters in the Congo basin who've lived there with their wonderful way of living for so many hundreds of years are now corrupted. They're given weapons; they shoot for the logging camps; they get money. Their culture is being destroyed, along with the animals upon whom they depend. So, when the logging camp moves, there's nothing left. We talked already about the loss of human cultural diversity, and I've seen it happening with my own eyes. And the grim picture in Africa — I love Africa, and what do we see in Africa? We see deforestation; we see the desert spreading; we see massive hunger; we see disease and we see population growth in areas where there are more people living on a certain piece of land than the land can possibly support, and they're too poor to buy food from elsewhere. Were the people that we heard about yesterday, on the Easter Island, who cut down their last tree — were they stupid? Didn't they know what was happening? Of course, but if you've seen the crippling poverty in some of these parts of the world it isn't a question of "Let's leave the tree for tomorrow." "How am I going to feed my family today? Maybe I can get just a few dollars from this last tree which will keep us going a little bit longer, and then we'll pray that something will happen to save us from the inevitable end." So, this is a pretty grim picture. The one thing we have, which makes us so different from chimpanzees or other living creatures, is this sophisticated spoken language — a language with which we can tell children about things that aren't here. We can talk about the distant past, plan for the distant future, discuss ideas with each other, so that the ideas can grow from the accumulated wisdom of a group. We can do it by talking to each other; we can do it through video; we can do it through the written word. And we are abusing this great power we have to be wise stewards, and we're destroying the world. In the developed world, in a way, it's worse, because we have so much access to knowledge of the stupidity of what we're doing. Do you know, we're bringing little babies into a world where, in many places, the water is poisoning them? And the air is harming them, and the food that's grown from the contaminated land is poisoning them. And that's not just in the far-away developing world; that's everywhere. Do you know we all have about 50 chemicals in our bodies we didn't have about 50 years ago? And so many of these diseases, like asthma and certain kinds of cancers, are on the increase around places where our filthy toxic waste is dumped. We're harming ourselves around the world, as well as harming the animals, as well as harming nature herself — Mother Nature, that brought us into being; Mother Nature, where I believe we need to spend time, where there's trees and flowers and birds for our good psychological development. And yet, there are hundreds and hundreds of children in the developed world who never see nature, because they're growing up in concrete and all they know is virtual reality, with no opportunity to go and lie in the sun, or in the forest, with the dappled sun-specks coming down from the canopy above. As I was traveling around the world, you know, I had to leave the forest — that's where I love to be. I had to leave these fascinating chimpanzees for my students and field staff to continue studying because, finding they dwindled from about two million 100 years ago to about 150,000 now, I knew I had to leave the forest to do what I could to raise awareness around the world. And the more I talked about the chimpanzees' plight, the more I realized the fact that everything's interconnected, and the problems of the developing world so often stem from the greed of the developed world, and everything was joining together, and making — not sense, hope lies in sense, you said — it's making a nonsense. How can we do it? Somebody said that yesterday. And as I was traveling around, I kept meeting young people who'd lost hope. They were feeling despair, they were feeling, "Well, it doesn't matter what we do; eat, drink and be merry, for tomorrow we die. Everything is hopeless — we're always being told so by the media." And then I met some who were angry, and anger that can turn to violence, and we're all familiar with that. And I have three little grandchildren, and when some of these students would say to me at high school or university, they'd say, "We're angry," or "We're filled with despair, because we feel you've compromised our future, and there's nothing we can do about it." And I looked in the eyes of my little grandchildren, and think how much we've harmed this planet since I was their age. I feel this deep shame, and that's why in 1991 in Tanzania, I started a program that's called Roots and Shoots. There's little brochures all around outside, and if any of you have anything to do with children and care about their future, I beg that you pick up that brochure. And Roots and Shoots is a program for hope. Roots make a firm foundation. Shoots seem tiny, but to reach the sun they can break through brick walls. See the brick walls as all the problems that we've inflicted on this planet. Then, you see, it is a message of hope. Hundreds and thousands of young people around the world can break through, and can make this a better world. And the most important message of Roots and Shoots is that every single individual makes a difference. Every individual has a role to play. Every one of us impacts the world around us everyday, and you scientists know that you can't actually — even if you stay in bed all day, you're breathing oxygen and giving out CO2, and probably going to the loo, and things like that — you're making a difference in the world. So, the Roots and Shoots program involves youth in three kinds of projects. And these are projects to make the world around them a better place. One project to show care and concern for your own human community. One for animals, including domestic animals — and I have to say, I learned everything I know about animal behavior even before I got to Gombe and the chimps from my dog, Rusty, who was my childhood companion. And the third kind of project: something for the local environment. So what the kids do depends first of all, how old are they — and we go now from pre-school right through university. It's going to depend whether they're inner-city or rural. It's going to depend if they're wealthy or impoverished. It's going to depend which part, say, of America they're in. We're in every state now, and the problems in Florida are different from the problems in New York. It's going to depend on which country they're in — and we're already in 60-plus countries, with about 5,000 active groups — and there are groups all over the place that I keep hearing about that I've never even heard of, because the kids are taking the program and spreading it themselves. Why? Because they're buying into it, and they're the ones who get to decide what they're going to do. It isn't something that their parents tell them, or their teachers tell them. That's effective, but if they decide themselves, "We want to clean this river and put the fish back that used to be there. We want to clear away the toxic soil from this area and have an organic garden. We want to go and spend time with the old people and hear their stories and record their oral histories. We want to go and work in a dog shelter. We want to learn about animals. We want ... " You know, it goes on and on, and this is very hopeful for me. As I travel around the world 300 days a year, everywhere there's a group of Roots and Shoots of different ages. Everywhere there are children with shining eyes saying, "Look at the difference we've made." And now comes the technology into it, because with this new way of communicating electronically these kids can communicate with each other around the world. And if anyone is interested to help us, we've got so many ideas but we need help — we need help to create the right kind of system that will help these young people to communicate their excitement. But also — and this is so important — to communicate their despair, to say, "We've tried this and it doesn't work, and what shall we do?" And then, lo and behold, there's another group answering these kids who may be in America, or maybe this is a group in Israel, saying, "Yeah, you did it a little bit wrong. This is how you should do it." The philosophy is very simple. We do not believe in violence. No violence, no bombs, no guns. That's not the way to solve problems. Violence leads to violence, at least in my view. So how do we solve? The tools for solving the problems are knowledge and understanding. Know the facts, but see how they fit in the big picture. Hard work and persistence —don't give up — and love and compassion leading to respect for all life. How many more minutes? Two, one? Chris Anderson: One — one to two. Jane Goodall: Two, two, I'm going to take two. (Laughter) Are you going to come and drag me off? (Laughter) Anyway — so basically, Roots and Shoots is beginning to change young people's lives. It's what I'm devoting most of my energy to. And I believe that a group like this can have a very major impact, not just because you can share technology with us, but because so many of you have children. And if you take this program out, and give it to your children, they have such a good opportunity to go out and do good, because they've got parents like you. And it's been so clear how much you all care about trying to make this world a better place. It's very encouraging. But the kids do ask me — and this won't take more than two minutes, I promise — the kids say, "Dr. Jane, do you really have hope for the future? You travel, you see all these horrible things happening." Firstly, the human brain — I don't need to say anything about that. Now that we know what the problems are around the world, human brains like yours are rising to solve those problems. And we've talked a lot about that. Secondly, the resilience of nature. We can destroy a river, and we can bring it back to life. We can see a whole area desolated, and it can be brought back to bloom again, with time or a little help. And thirdly, the last speaker talked about — or the speaker before last, talked about the indomitable human spirit. We are surrounded by the most amazing people who do things that seem to be absolutely impossible. Nelson Mandela — I take a little piece of limestone from Robben Island Prison, where he labored for 27 years, and came out with so little bitterness, he could lead his people from the horror of apartheid without a bloodbath. Even after the 11th of September — and I was in New York and I felt the fear — nevertheless, there was so much human courage, so much love and so much compassion. And then as I went around the country after that and felt the fear — the fear that was leading to people feeling they couldn't worry about the environment any more, in case they seemed not to be patriotic — and I was trying to encourage them, somebody came up with a little quotation from Mahatma Gandhi, "If you look back through human history, you see that every evil regime has been overcome by good." And just after that a woman brought me this little bell, and I want to end on this note. She said, "If you're talking about hope and peace, ring this. This bell is made from metal from a defused landmine, from the killing fields of Pol Pot — one of the most evil regimes in human history — where people are now beginning to put their lives back together after the regime has crumbled. So, yes, there is hope, and where is the hope? Is it out there with the politicians? It's in our hands. It's in your hands and my hands and those of our children. It's really up to us. We're the ones who can make a difference. If we lead lives where we consciously leave the lightest possible ecological footprints, if we buy the things that are ethical for us to buy and don't buy the things that are not, we can change the world overnight. Thank you.

Frequently Occurring Word Combinations

ngrams of length 2

collocation frequency
young people 3
animal kingdom 2
studying chimpanzees 2
absolutely impossible 2
david greybeard 2
grim picture 2
brick walls 2

Important Words

  1. absolutely
  2. abuse
  3. abusing
  4. accept
  5. access
  6. acclimatized
  7. accumulated
  8. active
  9. admit
  10. adult
  11. affectionate
  12. africa
  13. age
  14. ages
  15. ai
  16. air
  17. altruism
  18. amazing
  19. america
  20. analyzed
  21. anger
  22. angry
  23. animal
  24. animals
  25. answering
  26. apartheid
  27. apes
  28. applause
  29. area
  30. areas
  31. arrogance
  32. asthma
  33. avenue
  34. awareness
  35. awful
  36. babies
  37. bad
  38. bank
  39. basically
  40. basin
  41. batteries
  42. bed
  43. beg
  44. began
  45. beginning
  46. behavior
  47. behaviors
  48. behold
  49. beings
  50. bell
  51. big
  52. bigger
  53. binoculars
  54. biologists
  55. birds
  56. bit
  57. bitterness
  58. bloodbath
  59. bloom
  60. bodies
  61. bombs
  62. bonds
  63. born
  64. brain
  65. brains
  66. break
  67. breakthrough
  68. breathing
  69. brick
  70. bright
  71. bring
  72. bringing
  73. brochure
  74. brochures
  75. brothers
  76. brought
  77. buy
  78. buying
  79. call
  80. called
  81. camp
  82. camps
  83. cancers
  84. canopy
  85. capable
  86. captivity
  87. care
  88. case
  89. change
  90. chemicals
  91. chief
  92. child
  93. childhood
  94. children
  95. chimpanzee
  96. chimpanzees
  97. chimps
  98. chinese
  99. chris
  100. circumstances
  101. civilization
  102. clean
  103. cleaned
  104. clear
  105. cognition
  106. collecting
  107. coming
  108. communicate
  109. communicating
  110. communication
  111. community
  112. companies
  113. companion
  114. compassion
  115. completely
  116. complex
  117. composed
  118. compromised
  119. computer
  120. computers
  121. concentrated
  122. concentration
  123. concern
  124. concrete
  125. conference
  126. congo
  127. consciously
  128. contaminated
  129. context
  130. continue
  131. cooperation
  132. correct
  133. corrupted
  134. countries
  135. country
  136. courage
  137. create
  138. creature
  139. creatures
  140. crippling
  141. crumbled
  142. cultural
  143. culturally
  144. culture
  145. cultures
  146. cut
  147. dappled
  148. dark
  149. david
  150. davis
  151. day
  152. days
  153. debt
  154. decide
  155. deep
  156. defined
  157. definition
  158. deforestation
  159. defused
  160. demanding
  161. depend
  162. dependence
  163. depends
  164. describe
  165. desert
  166. desolated
  167. despair
  168. destroy
  169. destroyed
  170. destroying
  171. determine
  172. develop
  173. developed
  174. developing
  175. development
  176. developments
  177. devoting
  178. die
  179. difference
  180. disappearing
  181. discuss
  182. disease
  183. diseases
  184. distant
  185. diversity
  186. dividing
  187. dna
  188. dog
  189. dollars
  190. domestic
  191. drag
  192. drink
  193. dumped
  194. dwindled
  195. earlier
  196. easter
  197. eat
  198. ecological
  199. ecuador
  200. effective
  201. electricity
  202. electronically
  203. emotional
  204. emotions
  205. encourage
  206. encouraging
  207. energy
  208. english
  209. environment
  210. equipment
  211. era
  212. ethical
  213. evening
  214. everyday
  215. evil
  216. excitement
  217. exciting
  218. experimenter
  219. expertise
  220. exploit
  221. extraordinary
  222. eyes
  223. faces
  224. fact
  225. facts
  226. familiar
  227. families
  228. family
  229. fantastic
  230. fascinating
  231. fast
  232. faster
  233. fathers
  234. fear
  235. feathers
  236. fecal
  237. feed
  238. feel
  239. feeling
  240. feelings
  241. felt
  242. female
  243. field
  244. fields
  245. fighting
  246. filled
  247. film
  248. filthy
  249. find
  250. finding
  251. finery
  252. firm
  253. firstly
  254. fish
  255. fist
  256. fit
  257. fits
  258. fitted
  259. flexible
  260. florida
  261. flowers
  262. food
  263. footprints
  264. foreign
  265. forest
  266. forests
  267. fortunately
  268. foundation
  269. french
  270. future
  271. game
  272. gandhi
  273. garden
  274. gathering
  275. generation
  276. geographic
  277. gesture
  278. give
  279. giving
  280. glass
  281. gombe
  282. good
  283. gorillas
  284. grandchildren
  285. grass
  286. great
  287. greed
  288. greeting
  289. greybeard
  290. grim
  291. group
  292. groups
  293. grow
  294. growing
  295. grown
  296. growth
  297. gsi
  298. guns
  299. habitat
  300. hands
  301. happen
  302. happening
  303. happiness
  304. hard
  305. harmed
  306. harming
  307. harmony
  308. headdresses
  309. health
  310. hear
  311. heard
  312. hearing
  313. heart
  314. helping
  315. high
  316. histories
  317. history
  318. hold
  319. honor
  320. hooked
  321. hope
  322. hopeful
  323. hopeless
  324. horrible
  325. horror
  326. hour
  327. house
  328. houses
  329. huge
  330. human
  331. humans
  332. humility
  333. humor
  334. hunched
  335. hundreds
  336. hunt
  337. hunters
  338. ideas
  339. imagery
  340. imf
  341. imitation
  342. impact
  343. impacts
  344. importance
  345. important
  346. impossible
  347. impoverished
  348. including
  349. increase
  350. indigenous
  351. individual
  352. indomitable
  353. inevitable
  354. infant
  355. inflicted
  356. information
  357. infrared
  358. intellectual
  359. interconnected
  360. interested
  361. involves
  362. island
  363. israel
  364. jane
  365. japan
  366. joining
  367. jumped
  368. kids
  369. killing
  370. kind
  371. kinds
  372. kingdom
  373. knew
  374. knowledge
  375. labored
  376. land
  377. landmine
  378. language
  379. languages
  380. laptop
  381. large
  382. laughter
  383. lead
  384. leading
  385. leads
  386. leafy
  387. leakey
  388. learn
  389. learned
  390. learning
  391. leave
  392. leaves
  393. led
  394. left
  395. levels
  396. lie
  397. lies
  398. life
  399. lifetime
  400. light
  401. lighter
  402. lightest
  403. limestone
  404. line
  405. live
  406. lived
  407. lives
  408. living
  409. lo
  410. local
  411. logging
  412. long
  413. longer
  414. loo
  415. looked
  416. loss
  417. lost
  418. lot
  419. louis
  420. love
  421. loves
  422. mahatma
  423. major
  424. making
  425. male
  426. mammals
  427. man
  428. mandela
  429. massive
  430. mating
  431. matter
  432. means
  433. meat
  434. media
  435. meeting
  436. mental
  437. mentor
  438. merry
  439. message
  440. met
  441. metal
  442. middle
  443. million
  444. minds
  445. mining
  446. minutes
  447. mirrors
  448. mistakes
  449. modern
  450. modifying
  451. money
  452. morning
  453. mother
  454. mound
  455. moves
  456. multinational
  457. named
  458. nature
  459. needing
  460. nelson
  461. nest
  462. news
  463. night
  464. nonsense
  465. note
  466. object
  467. objects
  468. observation
  469. oil
  470. ooh
  471. opens
  472. opportunity
  473. opposed
  474. oral
  475. orangutans
  476. organic
  477. overcome
  478. overnight
  479. oxygen
  480. pad
  481. paint
  482. panels
  483. parents
  484. parrot
  485. part
  486. partner
  487. parts
  488. passed
  489. pat
  490. patriotic
  491. patterns
  492. pay
  493. peace
  494. peered
  495. people
  496. performance
  497. performances
  498. persistence
  499. personalities
  500. philosophy
  501. physical
  502. pick
  503. picking
  504. picture
  505. piece
  506. pieces
  507. place
  508. places
  509. plan
  510. plane
  511. planet
  512. play
  513. plight
  514. point
  515. poisoning
  516. pol
  517. politicians
  518. polluted
  519. poor
  520. population
  521. populations
  522. possibly
  523. posture
  524. pot
  525. poverty
  526. power
  527. practice
  528. pray
  529. preferred
  530. prepared
  531. prerogatives
  532. pressure
  533. pressures
  534. pretty
  535. prey
  536. prison
  537. problems
  538. profiling
  539. program
  540. project
  541. projects
  542. promiscuous
  543. promise
  544. propose
  545. prove
  546. psychological
  547. pump
  548. purpose
  549. purposes
  550. put
  551. pygmy
  552. question
  553. quotation
  554. rainforest
  555. raise
  556. raisin
  557. range
  558. reach
  559. real
  560. reality
  561. realized
  562. reason
  563. reasons
  564. recognize
  565. record
  566. recording
  567. redefine
  568. regal
  569. regime
  570. regimes
  571. remain
  572. remember
  573. research
  574. resilience
  575. respect
  576. response
  577. rest
  578. reward
  579. rich
  580. ring
  581. rising
  582. river
  583. roads
  584. robben
  585. role
  586. room
  587. roots
  588. run
  589. running
  590. rural
  591. rusty
  592. sad
  593. sadness
  594. samples
  595. sapient
  596. satellite
  597. satisfaction
  598. save
  599. school
  600. science
  601. scientific
  602. scientists
  603. score
  604. screen
  605. search
  606. sell
  607. sense
  608. sensitive
  609. sentient
  610. september
  611. shake
  612. shame
  613. shape
  614. share
  615. sharp
  616. shelter
  617. shining
  618. shoot
  619. shoots
  620. show
  621. sign
  622. similar
  623. simple
  624. simply
  625. single
  626. sisters
  627. sit
  628. skilled
  629. sleeping
  630. slides
  631. small
  632. smoke
  633. social
  634. society
  635. soil
  636. solar
  637. solve
  638. solving
  639. sophisticated
  640. sounds
  641. speaker
  642. specific
  643. spend
  644. spirit
  645. spoken
  646. spreading
  647. staff
  648. start
  649. started
  650. state
  651. stay
  652. stem
  653. stewards
  654. store
  655. stories
  656. strip
  657. students
  658. studied
  659. studying
  660. stuff
  661. stupid
  662. stupidity
  663. suckling
  664. suddenly
  665. suffering
  666. suggest
  667. suitable
  668. sun
  669. support
  670. supportive
  671. surrounded
  672. sustainable
  673. system
  674. systems
  675. talk
  676. talked
  677. talking
  678. talks
  679. tanzania
  680. tap
  681. tape
  682. tasks
  683. taught
  684. teachers
  685. teaches
  686. technologies
  687. technology
  688. ted
  689. telling
  690. termite
  691. termites
  692. thirdly
  693. thought
  694. thousands
  695. timber
  696. time
  697. tiny
  698. today
  699. told
  700. tomorrow
  701. toolmaker
  702. tools
  703. touch
  704. towns
  705. toxic
  706. trade
  707. traditionally
  708. transformed
  709. travel
  710. traveling
  711. tree
  712. trees
  713. tropical
  714. trucks
  715. true
  716. turn
  717. twig
  718. underground
  719. understanding
  720. universities
  721. university
  722. untouched
  723. upper
  724. vegetation
  725. video
  726. view
  727. violence
  728. virtual
  729. vividly
  730. voice
  731. voices
  732. wade
  733. walls
  734. waste
  735. watch
  736. water
  737. ways
  738. wealthy
  739. white
  740. wild
  741. wind
  742. wisdom
  743. wise
  744. woman
  745. women
  746. wonderful
  747. wonderfully
  748. word
  749. work
  750. working
  751. world
  752. worry
  753. worse
  754. written
  755. wrong
  756. wuzzier
  757. wuzzy
  758. year
  759. years
  760. yesterday
  761. york
  762. young
  763. youth