full transcript
"From the Ted Talk by Nagin Cox: What time is it on Mars?"

Unscramble the Blue Letters

And, what might not have occurred to you is, what are the logistics really like of working on another planet — of living on two planets when there are ppleoe on the Earth and there are rovers or people on Mars? So think about when you have friends, families and co-workers in ciliafonra, on the West cosat or in other parts of the world. When you're trying to cotniuammce with them, one of the things you probably first think about is: wait, what time is it in California? Will I wake them up? Is it OK to call? So even if you're interacting with colleagues who are in Europe, you're immediately thinking about: What does it take to ctnoodirae communication when people are far away? So we don't have people on Mars right now, but we do have rovers. And actually right now, on Curiosity, it is 6:10 in the mrnniog. So, 6:10 in the morning on Mars. We have four rovers on Mars. The United stetas has put four rovers on Mars since the mid-1990s, and I have been privileged enough to work on three of them. So, I am a spacecraft engineer, a sraacpcfet opiarntoes engineer, at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Los Angeles, California. And these rovers are our rbiootc emissaries. So, they are our eyes and our ears, and they see the planet for us until we can send people. So we lrean how to operate on other pletans through these rvoers. So before we send people, we send robots. So the reason there's a time difference on Mars right now, from the time that we're at is because the Martian day is longer than the etarh day. Our Earth day is 24 hours, because that's how long it takes the Earth to rotate, how long it takes to go around once. So our day is 24 hours. It takes Mars 24 hours and approximately 40 minutes to rotate once. So that means that the miartan day is 40 minutes longer than the Earth day. So teams of people who are operating the rovers on Mars, like this one, what we are doing is we are liinvg on Earth, but working on Mars. So we have to think as if we are actually on Mars with the rover. Our job, the job of this team, of which I'm a part of, is to send commands to the roevr to tell it what to do the next day. To tell it to drive or drill or tell her whatever she's supposed to do. So while she's sleeping — and the rover does sleep at night because she needs to recharge her bertteias and she needs to weather the cold Martian night. And so she sleeps. So while she seepls, we work on her pogrram for the next day. So I work the Martian night shift. (Laughter) So in order to come to work on the Earth at the same time every day on Mars — like, let's say I need to be at work at 5:00 p.m., this team needs to be at work at 5:00 p.m. Mars time every day, then we have to come to work on the Earth 40 muetins later every day, in order to stay in sync with Mars. That's like moving a time zone every day. So one day you come in at 8:00, the next day 40 minutes later at 8:40, the next day 40 minutes later at 9:20, the next day at 10:00. So you keep moving 40 minutes every day, until soon you're coming to work in the middle of the night — the middle of the Earth ngiht. Right? So you can imagine how confusing that is. Hence, the Mars watch. (Laughter) This wegiths in this watch have been mechanically adjusted so that it runs more slowly. Right? And we didn't sartt out — I got this watch in 2004 when Spirit and Opportunity, the rovers back then. We didn't start out thinking that we were going to need Mars watches. Right? We thought, OK, we'll just have the time on our cupotrems and on the mission control screens, and that would be enough. Yeah, not so much. Because we weren't just working on Mars time, we were actually living on Mars time. And we got just instantaneously cnsfoeud about what time it was. So you really needed something on your wrist to tell you: What time is it on the Earth? What time is it on Mars? And it wasn't just the time on Mars that was confusing; we also needed to be able to talk to each other about it. So a "sol" is a Martian day — again, 24 hours and 40 minutes. So when we're talnikg about something that's happening on the Earth, we will say, today. So, for Mars, we say, "tosol." (Laughter) Yesterday became "yestersol" for Mars. Again, we didn't start out thinking, "Oh, let's invent a language." It was just very confusing. I remember somebody walked up to me and said, "I would like to do this aitctviy on the vehicle tomorrow, on the rover." And I said, "Tomorrow, torrmoow, or Mars, tomorrow?" We started this terminology because we needed a way to talk to each other. (Laughter) Tomorrow became "nextersol" or "solorrow." Because people have different preferences for the words they use. Some of you might say "soda" and some of you might say "pop." So we have people who say "nextersol" or "solorrow." And then something that I noticed after a few years of working on these missions, was that the people who work on the rovers, we say "tosol." The people who work on the landed missions that don't rove around, they say "tosoul." So I could actually tell what moisisn you worked on from your Martian ancect. (laehgutr) So we have the watches and the language, and you're detecting a temhe here, right? So that we don't get confused. But even the Earth daylight could confuse us. If you think that right now, you've come to work and it's the mldide of the Martian night and there's lihgt samrntieg in from the windows that's going to be confusing as well. So you can see from this image of the control room that all of the bnidls are down. So that there's no light to distract us. The blinds went down all over the building about a week before landing, and they didn't go up until we went off Mars time. So this also works for the hsoue, for at home. I've been on Mars time three times, and my husband is like, OK, we're getting ready for Mars time. And so he'll put foil all over the wodwnis and dark cairtuns and shades because it also affects your families. And so here I was living in kind of this darkened evmirnenont, but so was he. And he'd gotten used to it. But then I would get these plaintive emails from him when he was at work. Should I come home? Are you awake? What time is it on Mars? And I decided, OK, so he needs a Mars watch. (Laughter) But of course, it's 2016, so there's an app for that. (Laughter) So now instead of the watches, we can also use our phones. But the impact on families was just across the board; it wasn't just those of us who were working on the rovers but our feamilis as well. This is daivd Oh, one of our flight dercriots, and he's at the beach in Los Angeles with his family at 1:00 in the morning. (Laughter) So because we lnaded in August and his kids didn't have to go back to soochl until September, they actually went on to Mars time with him for one month. They got up 40 minutes later every day. And they were on dad's work schedule. So they lived on Mars time for a month and had these great adventures, like going bowling in the middle of the night or going to the beach. And one of the things that we all discovered is you can get anywhere in Los Angeles at 3:00 in the morning when there's no traffic.

Open Cloze

And, what might not have occurred to you is, what are the logistics really like of working on another planet — of living on two planets when there are ______ on the Earth and there are rovers or people on Mars? So think about when you have friends, families and co-workers in __________, on the West _____ or in other parts of the world. When you're trying to ___________ with them, one of the things you probably first think about is: wait, what time is it in California? Will I wake them up? Is it OK to call? So even if you're interacting with colleagues who are in Europe, you're immediately thinking about: What does it take to __________ communication when people are far away? So we don't have people on Mars right now, but we do have rovers. And actually right now, on Curiosity, it is 6:10 in the _______. So, 6:10 in the morning on Mars. We have four rovers on Mars. The United ______ has put four rovers on Mars since the mid-1990s, and I have been privileged enough to work on three of them. So, I am a spacecraft engineer, a __________ __________ engineer, at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Los Angeles, California. And these rovers are our _______ emissaries. So, they are our eyes and our ears, and they see the planet for us until we can send people. So we _____ how to operate on other _______ through these ______. So before we send people, we send robots. So the reason there's a time difference on Mars right now, from the time that we're at is because the Martian day is longer than the _____ day. Our Earth day is 24 hours, because that's how long it takes the Earth to rotate, how long it takes to go around once. So our day is 24 hours. It takes Mars 24 hours and approximately 40 minutes to rotate once. So that means that the _______ day is 40 minutes longer than the Earth day. So teams of people who are operating the rovers on Mars, like this one, what we are doing is we are ______ on Earth, but working on Mars. So we have to think as if we are actually on Mars with the rover. Our job, the job of this team, of which I'm a part of, is to send commands to the _____ to tell it what to do the next day. To tell it to drive or drill or tell her whatever she's supposed to do. So while she's sleeping — and the rover does sleep at night because she needs to recharge her _________ and she needs to weather the cold Martian night. And so she sleeps. So while she ______, we work on her _______ for the next day. So I work the Martian night shift. (Laughter) So in order to come to work on the Earth at the same time every day on Mars — like, let's say I need to be at work at 5:00 p.m., this team needs to be at work at 5:00 p.m. Mars time every day, then we have to come to work on the Earth 40 _______ later every day, in order to stay in sync with Mars. That's like moving a time zone every day. So one day you come in at 8:00, the next day 40 minutes later at 8:40, the next day 40 minutes later at 9:20, the next day at 10:00. So you keep moving 40 minutes every day, until soon you're coming to work in the middle of the night — the middle of the Earth _____. Right? So you can imagine how confusing that is. Hence, the Mars watch. (Laughter) This _______ in this watch have been mechanically adjusted so that it runs more slowly. Right? And we didn't _____ out — I got this watch in 2004 when Spirit and Opportunity, the rovers back then. We didn't start out thinking that we were going to need Mars watches. Right? We thought, OK, we'll just have the time on our _________ and on the mission control screens, and that would be enough. Yeah, not so much. Because we weren't just working on Mars time, we were actually living on Mars time. And we got just instantaneously ________ about what time it was. So you really needed something on your wrist to tell you: What time is it on the Earth? What time is it on Mars? And it wasn't just the time on Mars that was confusing; we also needed to be able to talk to each other about it. So a "sol" is a Martian day — again, 24 hours and 40 minutes. So when we're _______ about something that's happening on the Earth, we will say, today. So, for Mars, we say, "tosol." (Laughter) Yesterday became "yestersol" for Mars. Again, we didn't start out thinking, "Oh, let's invent a language." It was just very confusing. I remember somebody walked up to me and said, "I would like to do this ________ on the vehicle tomorrow, on the rover." And I said, "Tomorrow, ________, or Mars, tomorrow?" We started this terminology because we needed a way to talk to each other. (Laughter) Tomorrow became "nextersol" or "solorrow." Because people have different preferences for the words they use. Some of you might say "soda" and some of you might say "pop." So we have people who say "nextersol" or "solorrow." And then something that I noticed after a few years of working on these missions, was that the people who work on the rovers, we say "tosol." The people who work on the landed missions that don't rove around, they say "tosoul." So I could actually tell what _______ you worked on from your Martian ______. (________) So we have the watches and the language, and you're detecting a _____ here, right? So that we don't get confused. But even the Earth daylight could confuse us. If you think that right now, you've come to work and it's the ______ of the Martian night and there's _____ _________ in from the windows that's going to be confusing as well. So you can see from this image of the control room that all of the ______ are down. So that there's no light to distract us. The blinds went down all over the building about a week before landing, and they didn't go up until we went off Mars time. So this also works for the _____, for at home. I've been on Mars time three times, and my husband is like, OK, we're getting ready for Mars time. And so he'll put foil all over the _______ and dark ________ and shades because it also affects your families. And so here I was living in kind of this darkened ___________, but so was he. And he'd gotten used to it. But then I would get these plaintive emails from him when he was at work. Should I come home? Are you awake? What time is it on Mars? And I decided, OK, so he needs a Mars watch. (Laughter) But of course, it's 2016, so there's an app for that. (Laughter) So now instead of the watches, we can also use our phones. But the impact on families was just across the board; it wasn't just those of us who were working on the rovers but our ________ as well. This is _____ Oh, one of our flight _________, and he's at the beach in Los Angeles with his family at 1:00 in the morning. (Laughter) So because we ______ in August and his kids didn't have to go back to ______ until September, they actually went on to Mars time with him for one month. They got up 40 minutes later every day. And they were on dad's work schedule. So they lived on Mars time for a month and had these great adventures, like going bowling in the middle of the night or going to the beach. And one of the things that we all discovered is you can get anywhere in Los Angeles at 3:00 in the morning when there's no traffic.

Solution

  1. landed
  2. rovers
  3. confused
  4. states
  5. start
  6. martian
  7. batteries
  8. school
  9. families
  10. middle
  11. morning
  12. curtains
  13. mission
  14. planets
  15. communicate
  16. coordinate
  17. laughter
  18. light
  19. house
  20. blinds
  21. david
  22. theme
  23. people
  24. coast
  25. operations
  26. living
  27. program
  28. computers
  29. talking
  30. minutes
  31. environment
  32. rover
  33. spacecraft
  34. weights
  35. windows
  36. tomorrow
  37. california
  38. robotic
  39. earth
  40. learn
  41. activity
  42. directors
  43. streaming
  44. sleeps
  45. accent
  46. night

Original Text

And, what might not have occurred to you is, what are the logistics really like of working on another planet — of living on two planets when there are people on the Earth and there are rovers or people on Mars? So think about when you have friends, families and co-workers in California, on the West Coast or in other parts of the world. When you're trying to communicate with them, one of the things you probably first think about is: wait, what time is it in California? Will I wake them up? Is it OK to call? So even if you're interacting with colleagues who are in Europe, you're immediately thinking about: What does it take to coordinate communication when people are far away? So we don't have people on Mars right now, but we do have rovers. And actually right now, on Curiosity, it is 6:10 in the morning. So, 6:10 in the morning on Mars. We have four rovers on Mars. The United States has put four rovers on Mars since the mid-1990s, and I have been privileged enough to work on three of them. So, I am a spacecraft engineer, a spacecraft operations engineer, at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Los Angeles, California. And these rovers are our robotic emissaries. So, they are our eyes and our ears, and they see the planet for us until we can send people. So we learn how to operate on other planets through these rovers. So before we send people, we send robots. So the reason there's a time difference on Mars right now, from the time that we're at is because the Martian day is longer than the Earth day. Our Earth day is 24 hours, because that's how long it takes the Earth to rotate, how long it takes to go around once. So our day is 24 hours. It takes Mars 24 hours and approximately 40 minutes to rotate once. So that means that the Martian day is 40 minutes longer than the Earth day. So teams of people who are operating the rovers on Mars, like this one, what we are doing is we are living on Earth, but working on Mars. So we have to think as if we are actually on Mars with the rover. Our job, the job of this team, of which I'm a part of, is to send commands to the rover to tell it what to do the next day. To tell it to drive or drill or tell her whatever she's supposed to do. So while she's sleeping — and the rover does sleep at night because she needs to recharge her batteries and she needs to weather the cold Martian night. And so she sleeps. So while she sleeps, we work on her program for the next day. So I work the Martian night shift. (Laughter) So in order to come to work on the Earth at the same time every day on Mars — like, let's say I need to be at work at 5:00 p.m., this team needs to be at work at 5:00 p.m. Mars time every day, then we have to come to work on the Earth 40 minutes later every day, in order to stay in sync with Mars. That's like moving a time zone every day. So one day you come in at 8:00, the next day 40 minutes later at 8:40, the next day 40 minutes later at 9:20, the next day at 10:00. So you keep moving 40 minutes every day, until soon you're coming to work in the middle of the night — the middle of the Earth night. Right? So you can imagine how confusing that is. Hence, the Mars watch. (Laughter) This weights in this watch have been mechanically adjusted so that it runs more slowly. Right? And we didn't start out — I got this watch in 2004 when Spirit and Opportunity, the rovers back then. We didn't start out thinking that we were going to need Mars watches. Right? We thought, OK, we'll just have the time on our computers and on the mission control screens, and that would be enough. Yeah, not so much. Because we weren't just working on Mars time, we were actually living on Mars time. And we got just instantaneously confused about what time it was. So you really needed something on your wrist to tell you: What time is it on the Earth? What time is it on Mars? And it wasn't just the time on Mars that was confusing; we also needed to be able to talk to each other about it. So a "sol" is a Martian day — again, 24 hours and 40 minutes. So when we're talking about something that's happening on the Earth, we will say, today. So, for Mars, we say, "tosol." (Laughter) Yesterday became "yestersol" for Mars. Again, we didn't start out thinking, "Oh, let's invent a language." It was just very confusing. I remember somebody walked up to me and said, "I would like to do this activity on the vehicle tomorrow, on the rover." And I said, "Tomorrow, tomorrow, or Mars, tomorrow?" We started this terminology because we needed a way to talk to each other. (Laughter) Tomorrow became "nextersol" or "solorrow." Because people have different preferences for the words they use. Some of you might say "soda" and some of you might say "pop." So we have people who say "nextersol" or "solorrow." And then something that I noticed after a few years of working on these missions, was that the people who work on the rovers, we say "tosol." The people who work on the landed missions that don't rove around, they say "tosoul." So I could actually tell what mission you worked on from your Martian accent. (Laughter) So we have the watches and the language, and you're detecting a theme here, right? So that we don't get confused. But even the Earth daylight could confuse us. If you think that right now, you've come to work and it's the middle of the Martian night and there's light streaming in from the windows that's going to be confusing as well. So you can see from this image of the control room that all of the blinds are down. So that there's no light to distract us. The blinds went down all over the building about a week before landing, and they didn't go up until we went off Mars time. So this also works for the house, for at home. I've been on Mars time three times, and my husband is like, OK, we're getting ready for Mars time. And so he'll put foil all over the windows and dark curtains and shades because it also affects your families. And so here I was living in kind of this darkened environment, but so was he. And he'd gotten used to it. But then I would get these plaintive emails from him when he was at work. Should I come home? Are you awake? What time is it on Mars? And I decided, OK, so he needs a Mars watch. (Laughter) But of course, it's 2016, so there's an app for that. (Laughter) So now instead of the watches, we can also use our phones. But the impact on families was just across the board; it wasn't just those of us who were working on the rovers but our families as well. This is David Oh, one of our flight directors, and he's at the beach in Los Angeles with his family at 1:00 in the morning. (Laughter) So because we landed in August and his kids didn't have to go back to school until September, they actually went on to Mars time with him for one month. They got up 40 minutes later every day. And they were on dad's work schedule. So they lived on Mars time for a month and had these great adventures, like going bowling in the middle of the night or going to the beach. And one of the things that we all discovered is you can get anywhere in Los Angeles at 3:00 in the morning when there's no traffic.

ngrams of length 2

collocation frequency
mars time 13
los angeles 3
martian day 3
earth day 3
martian night 3

Important Words

  1. accent
  2. activity
  3. adjusted
  4. adventures
  5. affects
  6. angeles
  7. app
  8. approximately
  9. august
  10. awake
  11. batteries
  12. beach
  13. blinds
  14. bowling
  15. building
  16. california
  17. call
  18. coast
  19. cold
  20. colleagues
  21. coming
  22. commands
  23. communicate
  24. communication
  25. computers
  26. confuse
  27. confused
  28. confusing
  29. control
  30. coordinate
  31. curiosity
  32. curtains
  33. dark
  34. darkened
  35. david
  36. day
  37. daylight
  38. decided
  39. detecting
  40. difference
  41. directors
  42. discovered
  43. distract
  44. drill
  45. drive
  46. ears
  47. earth
  48. emails
  49. emissaries
  50. engineer
  51. environment
  52. europe
  53. eyes
  54. families
  55. family
  56. flight
  57. foil
  58. friends
  59. great
  60. happening
  61. home
  62. hours
  63. house
  64. husband
  65. image
  66. imagine
  67. immediately
  68. impact
  69. instantaneously
  70. interacting
  71. invent
  72. jet
  73. job
  74. kids
  75. kind
  76. laboratory
  77. landed
  78. landing
  79. language
  80. laughter
  81. learn
  82. light
  83. lived
  84. living
  85. logistics
  86. long
  87. longer
  88. los
  89. mars
  90. martian
  91. means
  92. mechanically
  93. middle
  94. minutes
  95. mission
  96. missions
  97. month
  98. morning
  99. moving
  100. needed
  101. night
  102. noticed
  103. occurred
  104. operate
  105. operating
  106. operations
  107. opportunity
  108. order
  109. part
  110. parts
  111. people
  112. phones
  113. plaintive
  114. planet
  115. planets
  116. preferences
  117. privileged
  118. program
  119. propulsion
  120. put
  121. ready
  122. reason
  123. recharge
  124. remember
  125. robotic
  126. robots
  127. room
  128. rotate
  129. rove
  130. rover
  131. rovers
  132. runs
  133. schedule
  134. school
  135. screens
  136. send
  137. september
  138. shades
  139. shift
  140. sleep
  141. sleeping
  142. sleeps
  143. slowly
  144. spacecraft
  145. spirit
  146. start
  147. started
  148. states
  149. stay
  150. streaming
  151. supposed
  152. sync
  153. takes
  154. talk
  155. talking
  156. team
  157. teams
  158. terminology
  159. theme
  160. thinking
  161. thought
  162. time
  163. times
  164. today
  165. tomorrow
  166. traffic
  167. united
  168. vehicle
  169. wait
  170. wake
  171. walked
  172. watch
  173. watches
  174. weather
  175. week
  176. weights
  177. west
  178. windows
  179. words
  180. work
  181. worked
  182. working
  183. works
  184. world
  185. wrist
  186. yeah
  187. years
  188. yesterday
  189. zone