full transcript

## Unscramble the Blue Letters

For most of human history, ancient civilizations meesarud time with uqunie calendars that tkeacrd the stdeay march of the night sky. In fact, the second as we know it wasn’t introduced until the late 1500’s, when the Gregorian calendar began to spread across the globe alongside British coslolnaiim. The Gregorian calendar defined a day as a single revolution of the Earth about its axis. Each day could be divdied into 24 hours, each hour into 60 minutes, and each minute into 60 seconds. However, when it was first denefid, the second was more of a mathematical idea than a useful unit of time. Measuring days and huros was sufficient for most tsaks in pastoral communities. It wasn’t until society became interconnected through fast-moving railways that cities needed to agree on exact timekeeping. By the 1950’s, numerous global systems riqeured every second to be perfectly accounted for, with as much precision as possible. And what could be more precise than the atomic scale?

## Open Cloze

For most of human history, ancient civilizations ________ time with ______ calendars that _______ the ______ march of the night sky. In fact, the second as we know it wasn’t introduced until the late 1500’s, when the Gregorian calendar began to spread across the globe alongside British ___________. The Gregorian calendar defined a day as a single revolution of the Earth about its axis. Each day could be _______ into 24 hours, each hour into 60 minutes, and each minute into 60 seconds. However, when it was first _______, the second was more of a mathematical idea than a useful unit of time. Measuring days and _____ was sufficient for most _____ in pastoral communities. It wasn’t until society became interconnected through fast-moving railways that cities needed to agree on exact timekeeping. By the 1950’s, numerous global systems ________ every second to be perfectly accounted for, with as much precision as possible. And what could be more precise than the atomic scale?

1. measured
2. defined
3. tracked
4. unique
5. colonialism
6. divided
7. hours
10. required

## Original Text

For most of human history, ancient civilizations measured time with unique calendars that tracked the steady march of the night sky. In fact, the second as we know it wasn’t introduced until the late 1500’s, when the Gregorian calendar began to spread across the globe alongside British colonialism. The Gregorian calendar defined a day as a single revolution of the Earth about its axis. Each day could be divided into 24 hours, each hour into 60 minutes, and each minute into 60 seconds. However, when it was first defined, the second was more of a mathematical idea than a useful unit of time. Measuring days and hours was sufficient for most tasks in pastoral communities. It wasn’t until society became interconnected through fast-moving railways that cities needed to agree on exact timekeeping. By the 1950’s, numerous global systems required every second to be perfectly accounted for, with as much precision as possible. And what could be more precise than the atomic scale?

## Frequently Occurring Word Combinations

### ngrams of length 2

collocation frequency
gregorian calendar 2
atomic clocks 2

## Important Words

1. accounted
2. agree
3. ancient
4. atomic
5. axis
6. began
7. british
8. calendar
9. calendars
10. cities
11. civilizations
12. colonialism
13. communities
14. day
15. days
16. defined
17. divided
18. earth
19. exact
20. fact
21. global
22. globe
23. gregorian
24. history
25. hour
26. hours
27. human
28. idea
29. interconnected
30. introduced
31. late
32. march
33. mathematical
34. measured
35. measuring
36. minute
37. minutes
38. needed
39. night
40. numerous
41. pastoral
42. perfectly
43. precise
44. precision
45. railways
46. required
47. revolution
48. scale
49. seconds
50. single
51. sky
52. society