full transcript

From the Ted Talk by Lorenzo García-Amaya: Why do we, like, hesitate when we, um, speak?

Unscramble the Blue Letters

Hesitation phenomena aren’t the only parts of seceph that take on new mneiang during dialogue. Words and phrases such as “like,” “well” or “you know” function as discourse markers, ignoring their literal meaning to convey something about the sentence in which they appear. Discourse markers direct the flow of conversation, and some seitdus suggest that conscientious speakers use more of these pshares to ensure everyone is being heard and understood. For example, starting a sentence with “Look...” can indicate your attitude and help you gauge the listener’s aeeergnmt. “I mean” can signal that you’re about to elaborate on something. And the dreaded “like” can perform many functions, such as establishing a loose connection between thgthuos, or introducing someone else's wdros or actions. These markers give people a real-time view into your tuohhgt process and help listeners follow, interpret, and predict what you’re trying to say.

Open Cloze

Hesitation phenomena aren’t the only parts of ______ that take on new _______ during dialogue. Words and phrases such as “like,” “well” or “you know” function as discourse markers, ignoring their literal meaning to convey something about the sentence in which they appear. Discourse markers direct the flow of conversation, and some _______ suggest that conscientious speakers use more of these _______ to ensure everyone is being heard and understood. For example, starting a sentence with “Look...” can indicate your attitude and help you gauge the listener’s _________. “I mean” can signal that you’re about to elaborate on something. And the dreaded “like” can perform many functions, such as establishing a loose connection between ________, or introducing someone else's _____ or actions. These markers give people a real-time view into your _______ process and help listeners follow, interpret, and predict what you’re trying to say.

Solution

  1. agreement
  2. studies
  3. meaning
  4. phrases
  5. thought
  6. words
  7. thoughts
  8. speech

Original Text

Hesitation phenomena aren’t the only parts of speech that take on new meaning during dialogue. Words and phrases such as “like,” “well” or “you know” function as discourse markers, ignoring their literal meaning to convey something about the sentence in which they appear. Discourse markers direct the flow of conversation, and some studies suggest that conscientious speakers use more of these phrases to ensure everyone is being heard and understood. For example, starting a sentence with “Look...” can indicate your attitude and help you gauge the listener’s agreement. “I mean” can signal that you’re about to elaborate on something. And the dreaded “like” can perform many functions, such as establishing a loose connection between thoughts, or introducing someone else's words or actions. These markers give people a real-time view into your thought process and help listeners follow, interpret, and predict what you’re trying to say.

Frequently Occurring Word Combinations

ngrams of length 2

collocation frequency
hesitation phenomena 4
filled pause 3
discourse markers 3
filled pauses 3
speech components 2
hesitation phenomenon 2

Important Words

  1. actions
  2. agreement
  3. attitude
  4. connection
  5. conscientious
  6. conversation
  7. convey
  8. dialogue
  9. direct
  10. discourse
  11. dreaded
  12. elaborate
  13. ensure
  14. establishing
  15. flow
  16. follow
  17. function
  18. functions
  19. gauge
  20. give
  21. heard
  22. hesitation
  23. ignoring
  24. interpret
  25. introducing
  26. listeners
  27. literal
  28. loose
  29. markers
  30. meaning
  31. parts
  32. people
  33. perform
  34. phenomena
  35. phrases
  36. predict
  37. process
  38. sentence
  39. signal
  40. speakers
  41. speech
  42. starting
  43. studies
  44. suggest
  45. thought
  46. thoughts
  47. understood
  48. view
  49. words