full transcript

From the Ted Talk by George Zaidan: Why is ketchup so hard to pour?

Unscramble the Blue Letters

French fries are delicious. French freis with ketchup are a little slice of heaven. The problem is it's basically impossible to pour the exactly right amount. We're so used to pouring ketchup that we don't realize how weird its behavior is. Imagine a ketchup bottle filled with a srtgahit up solid like steel. No amount of shaking would ever get the steel out. Now imagine that same bottle full of a liquid like weatr. That would pour like a dream. Ketchup, though, can't seem to make up its mind. Is it is a solid? Or a liquid? The answer is, it depends. The world's most common fluids like water, oils and alcohols rsnpeod to force linearly. If you push on them twice as hard, they move twice as fast. Sir Isaac Newton, of apple fame, first proposed this relationship, and so those fluids are called Newtonian fluids. Ketchup, though, is part of a merry band of leianr rule breakers called Non-Newtonian fluids. moynsaanie, toothpaste, boold, pniat, puenat butter and lots of other fluids respond to force non-linearly. That is, their aparnept thickness changes dipenndeg on how hard you push, or how long, or how fast. And ketchup is actually Non-Newtonian in two different ways. Way number one: the harder you push, the thinner ketchup seems to get. Below a certain pushing force, ketchup basically behaves like a solid. But once you pass that bkiearng point, it switches gares and becomes a thousand times thinner than it was before. Sound familiar right? Way number two: if you push with a force below the threshold force eanvleluty, the ketchup will sratt to flow. In this case, time, not force, is the key to releasing ketchup from its glassy porisn. arlhigt, so, why does ketchup act all weird? Well, it's made from tomatoes, pulverized, smashed, thrashed, utterly destroyed tomatoes. See these tiny piletrcas? This is what remains of toaoetms clels after they go through the ketchup tetmarent. And the liquid around those particles? That's mostly water and some vinegar, sugar, and spices. When ketchup is just sitting around, the tomato particles are evnely and randomly distributed. Now, let's say you apply a weak fcroe very qklicuy. The particles bump into each other, but can't get out of each other's way, so the ketchup doesn't flow. Now, let's say you apply a strong force very quickly. That erxta force is enough to squish the tomato particles, so maybe instead of little spheres, they get smushed into little ellipses, and boom! Now you have enough space for one group of particles to get passed others and the ketchup flows. Now let's say you aplpy a very weak force but for a very long time. Turns out, we're not exactly sure what happens in this srnicaeo. One possibility is that the tomato particles near the walls of the container slowly get bumped towards the middle, leaving the soup they were dissolved in, which remeembr is basically water, near the edges. That water serves as a lubricant betwen the glass btlote and the center plug of ketchup, and so the ketchup flows. Another possibility is that the particles slowly rearrange themselves into lots of small groups, which then flow past each other. Scientists who study fluid flows are still actively researching how kcutehp and its mrrey friends work. Ketchup basically gets thinner the harder you push, but other substances, like oobeclk or some natural peanut butters, actually get thicker the herdar you push. Others can climb up rotating rods, or continue to pour themselves out of a beeker, once you get them started. From a physics perspective, though, ketchup is one of the more complicated mixtures out there. And as if that weren't enough, the balance of ingredients and the presence of natural thickeners like xanthan gum, which is also found in many fruit drinks and malkhekiss, can mean that two different ketchups can bhavee completely differently. But most will show two telltale properties: seuddn thinning at a threshold force, and more gradual thinning after a small force is applied for a long time. And that maens you could get ketchup out of the bottle in two ways: either give it a series of long, slow languid shakes making sure you don't ever stop applying force, or you could hit the bottle once very, very hard. What the real pros do is keep the lid on, give the bottle a few short, sharp shakes to wake up all those tomato particles, and then take the lid off and do a nice controlled pour onto their heavenly fries.

Open Cloze

French fries are delicious. French _____ with ketchup are a little slice of heaven. The problem is it's basically impossible to pour the exactly right amount. We're so used to pouring ketchup that we don't realize how weird its behavior is. Imagine a ketchup bottle filled with a ________ up solid like steel. No amount of shaking would ever get the steel out. Now imagine that same bottle full of a liquid like _____. That would pour like a dream. Ketchup, though, can't seem to make up its mind. Is it is a solid? Or a liquid? The answer is, it depends. The world's most common fluids like water, oils and alcohols _______ to force linearly. If you push on them twice as hard, they move twice as fast. Sir Isaac Newton, of apple fame, first proposed this relationship, and so those fluids are called Newtonian fluids. Ketchup, though, is part of a merry band of ______ rule breakers called Non-Newtonian fluids. __________, toothpaste, _____, _____, ______ butter and lots of other fluids respond to force non-linearly. That is, their ________ thickness changes _________ on how hard you push, or how long, or how fast. And ketchup is actually Non-Newtonian in two different ways. Way number one: the harder you push, the thinner ketchup seems to get. Below a certain pushing force, ketchup basically behaves like a solid. But once you pass that ________ point, it switches _____ and becomes a thousand times thinner than it was before. Sound familiar right? Way number two: if you push with a force below the threshold force __________, the ketchup will _____ to flow. In this case, time, not force, is the key to releasing ketchup from its glassy ______. _______, so, why does ketchup act all weird? Well, it's made from tomatoes, pulverized, smashed, thrashed, utterly destroyed tomatoes. See these tiny _________? This is what remains of ________ _____ after they go through the ketchup _________. And the liquid around those particles? That's mostly water and some vinegar, sugar, and spices. When ketchup is just sitting around, the tomato particles are ______ and randomly distributed. Now, let's say you apply a weak _____ very _______. The particles bump into each other, but can't get out of each other's way, so the ketchup doesn't flow. Now, let's say you apply a strong force very quickly. That _____ force is enough to squish the tomato particles, so maybe instead of little spheres, they get smushed into little ellipses, and boom! Now you have enough space for one group of particles to get passed others and the ketchup flows. Now let's say you _____ a very weak force but for a very long time. Turns out, we're not exactly sure what happens in this ________. One possibility is that the tomato particles near the walls of the container slowly get bumped towards the middle, leaving the soup they were dissolved in, which ________ is basically water, near the edges. That water serves as a lubricant betwen the glass ______ and the center plug of ketchup, and so the ketchup flows. Another possibility is that the particles slowly rearrange themselves into lots of small groups, which then flow past each other. Scientists who study fluid flows are still actively researching how _______ and its _____ friends work. Ketchup basically gets thinner the harder you push, but other substances, like _______ or some natural peanut butters, actually get thicker the ______ you push. Others can climb up rotating rods, or continue to pour themselves out of a beeker, once you get them started. From a physics perspective, though, ketchup is one of the more complicated mixtures out there. And as if that weren't enough, the balance of ingredients and the presence of natural thickeners like xanthan gum, which is also found in many fruit drinks and __________, can mean that two different ketchups can ______ completely differently. But most will show two telltale properties: ______ thinning at a threshold force, and more gradual thinning after a small force is applied for a long time. And that _____ you could get ketchup out of the bottle in two ways: either give it a series of long, slow languid shakes making sure you don't ever stop applying force, or you could hit the bottle once very, very hard. What the real pros do is keep the lid on, give the bottle a few short, sharp shakes to wake up all those tomato particles, and then take the lid off and do a nice controlled pour onto their heavenly fries.

Solution

  1. evenly
  2. bottle
  3. alright
  4. merry
  5. behave
  6. cells
  7. scenario
  8. apply
  9. fries
  10. remember
  11. straight
  12. quickly
  13. respond
  14. peanut
  15. linear
  16. particles
  17. force
  18. blood
  19. depending
  20. ketchup
  21. paint
  22. start
  23. sudden
  24. treatment
  25. mayonnaise
  26. harder
  27. extra
  28. milkshakes
  29. gears
  30. water
  31. breaking
  32. tomatoes
  33. oobleck
  34. eventually
  35. prison
  36. apparent
  37. means

Original Text

French fries are delicious. French fries with ketchup are a little slice of heaven. The problem is it's basically impossible to pour the exactly right amount. We're so used to pouring ketchup that we don't realize how weird its behavior is. Imagine a ketchup bottle filled with a straight up solid like steel. No amount of shaking would ever get the steel out. Now imagine that same bottle full of a liquid like water. That would pour like a dream. Ketchup, though, can't seem to make up its mind. Is it is a solid? Or a liquid? The answer is, it depends. The world's most common fluids like water, oils and alcohols respond to force linearly. If you push on them twice as hard, they move twice as fast. Sir Isaac Newton, of apple fame, first proposed this relationship, and so those fluids are called Newtonian fluids. Ketchup, though, is part of a merry band of linear rule breakers called Non-Newtonian fluids. Mayonnaise, toothpaste, blood, paint, peanut butter and lots of other fluids respond to force non-linearly. That is, their apparent thickness changes depending on how hard you push, or how long, or how fast. And ketchup is actually Non-Newtonian in two different ways. Way number one: the harder you push, the thinner ketchup seems to get. Below a certain pushing force, ketchup basically behaves like a solid. But once you pass that breaking point, it switches gears and becomes a thousand times thinner than it was before. Sound familiar right? Way number two: if you push with a force below the threshold force eventually, the ketchup will start to flow. In this case, time, not force, is the key to releasing ketchup from its glassy prison. Alright, so, why does ketchup act all weird? Well, it's made from tomatoes, pulverized, smashed, thrashed, utterly destroyed tomatoes. See these tiny particles? This is what remains of tomatoes cells after they go through the ketchup treatment. And the liquid around those particles? That's mostly water and some vinegar, sugar, and spices. When ketchup is just sitting around, the tomato particles are evenly and randomly distributed. Now, let's say you apply a weak force very quickly. The particles bump into each other, but can't get out of each other's way, so the ketchup doesn't flow. Now, let's say you apply a strong force very quickly. That extra force is enough to squish the tomato particles, so maybe instead of little spheres, they get smushed into little ellipses, and boom! Now you have enough space for one group of particles to get passed others and the ketchup flows. Now let's say you apply a very weak force but for a very long time. Turns out, we're not exactly sure what happens in this scenario. One possibility is that the tomato particles near the walls of the container slowly get bumped towards the middle, leaving the soup they were dissolved in, which remember is basically water, near the edges. That water serves as a lubricant betwen the glass bottle and the center plug of ketchup, and so the ketchup flows. Another possibility is that the particles slowly rearrange themselves into lots of small groups, which then flow past each other. Scientists who study fluid flows are still actively researching how ketchup and its merry friends work. Ketchup basically gets thinner the harder you push, but other substances, like oobleck or some natural peanut butters, actually get thicker the harder you push. Others can climb up rotating rods, or continue to pour themselves out of a beeker, once you get them started. From a physics perspective, though, ketchup is one of the more complicated mixtures out there. And as if that weren't enough, the balance of ingredients and the presence of natural thickeners like xanthan gum, which is also found in many fruit drinks and milkshakes, can mean that two different ketchups can behave completely differently. But most will show two telltale properties: sudden thinning at a threshold force, and more gradual thinning after a small force is applied for a long time. And that means you could get ketchup out of the bottle in two ways: either give it a series of long, slow languid shakes making sure you don't ever stop applying force, or you could hit the bottle once very, very hard. What the real pros do is keep the lid on, give the bottle a few short, sharp shakes to wake up all those tomato particles, and then take the lid off and do a nice controlled pour onto their heavenly fries.

Frequently Occurring Word Combinations

ngrams of length 2

collocation frequency
french fries 2
ketchup basically 2
weak force 2
ketchup flows 2
long time 2

Important Words

  1. act
  2. actively
  3. alcohols
  4. alright
  5. amount
  6. answer
  7. apparent
  8. apple
  9. applied
  10. apply
  11. applying
  12. balance
  13. band
  14. basically
  15. beeker
  16. behave
  17. behaves
  18. behavior
  19. betwen
  20. blood
  21. bottle
  22. breakers
  23. breaking
  24. bump
  25. bumped
  26. butter
  27. butters
  28. called
  29. case
  30. cells
  31. center
  32. climb
  33. common
  34. completely
  35. complicated
  36. container
  37. continue
  38. controlled
  39. delicious
  40. depending
  41. depends
  42. destroyed
  43. differently
  44. dissolved
  45. distributed
  46. dream
  47. drinks
  48. edges
  49. ellipses
  50. evenly
  51. eventually
  52. extra
  53. fame
  54. familiar
  55. fast
  56. filled
  57. flow
  58. flows
  59. fluid
  60. fluids
  61. force
  62. french
  63. friends
  64. fries
  65. fruit
  66. full
  67. gears
  68. give
  69. glass
  70. glassy
  71. gradual
  72. group
  73. groups
  74. gum
  75. hard
  76. harder
  77. heaven
  78. heavenly
  79. hit
  80. imagine
  81. impossible
  82. ingredients
  83. isaac
  84. ketchup
  85. ketchups
  86. key
  87. languid
  88. leaving
  89. lid
  90. linear
  91. linearly
  92. liquid
  93. long
  94. lots
  95. lubricant
  96. making
  97. mayonnaise
  98. means
  99. merry
  100. middle
  101. milkshakes
  102. mind
  103. mixtures
  104. move
  105. natural
  106. newton
  107. newtonian
  108. nice
  109. number
  110. oils
  111. oobleck
  112. paint
  113. part
  114. particles
  115. pass
  116. passed
  117. peanut
  118. perspective
  119. physics
  120. plug
  121. point
  122. possibility
  123. pour
  124. pouring
  125. presence
  126. prison
  127. problem
  128. proposed
  129. pros
  130. pulverized
  131. push
  132. pushing
  133. quickly
  134. randomly
  135. real
  136. realize
  137. rearrange
  138. relationship
  139. releasing
  140. remains
  141. remember
  142. researching
  143. respond
  144. rods
  145. rotating
  146. rule
  147. scenario
  148. scientists
  149. series
  150. serves
  151. shakes
  152. shaking
  153. sharp
  154. short
  155. show
  156. sir
  157. sitting
  158. slice
  159. slow
  160. slowly
  161. small
  162. smashed
  163. smushed
  164. solid
  165. sound
  166. soup
  167. space
  168. spheres
  169. spices
  170. squish
  171. start
  172. started
  173. steel
  174. stop
  175. straight
  176. strong
  177. study
  178. substances
  179. sudden
  180. sugar
  181. switches
  182. telltale
  183. thickeners
  184. thicker
  185. thickness
  186. thinner
  187. thinning
  188. thousand
  189. thrashed
  190. threshold
  191. time
  192. times
  193. tiny
  194. tomato
  195. tomatoes
  196. toothpaste
  197. treatment
  198. turns
  199. utterly
  200. vinegar
  201. wake
  202. walls
  203. water
  204. ways
  205. weak
  206. weird
  207. work
  208. xanthan