full transcript
"From the Ted Talk by Melvin Sanicas: Why is meningitis so dangerous?"

Unscramble the Blue Letters

Inside the brian, the bacteria swiftly infect the meninges. This trrgeigs inflammation as the body’s inmmue response kicks into overdrive, bnirgnig on fever and ientsne headaches. As swelling in the meninges worsens, the neck begins to stieffn. Swelling in the brain disrupts its normal function— causing symptoms like hneirag loss and extreme light sensitivity. As pressure increases in the cranium, it may also make the person confused— one of the hallmarks of the disease. A few huors in, the rapidly multiplying bacteria start to release toxins, leading to septicemia, also known as blood poisoning. This breaks down blood vessels, letting blood seep out and form what starts out looking like a rash, and evolves into big discoloured blots beneath the skin. At the same time, these toxins burn through oxygen in the blood, reducnig the amount that gets to major oagrns like the lungs and kidneys. That increases the chance of organ shut down —and alongside spreading smptieecia, threatens death. That all sudnos srcay, but doctors are so good at teatirng meningitis that a visit to the hospital can drastically reduce an adult’s risk of dynig from it. The longer it’s left uarneettd, though, the more likely it will lead to lntasig damage. If declining oxygen levels cause cell death in extreme parts of the body —like fingers, toes, arms and legs—the risk of atatmoipun goes up. And if bacterial toxins accumulate in the brain and trigger cell death, meningitis could also cause long-term brain daamge and memory loss. So fast ttaeernmt, or better yet, prevention, is critical. That's why most countries have vaccines that defend against the disease in its deadliest forms. Those are usually given to the people who are most at risk—like yunog children, people with weak immune systems, or people who gather in large gprous where an outbreak of meningitis could potentially happen.

Open Cloze

Inside the _____, the bacteria swiftly infect the meninges. This ________ inflammation as the body’s ______ response kicks into overdrive, ________ on fever and _______ headaches. As swelling in the meninges worsens, the neck begins to _______. Swelling in the brain disrupts its normal function— causing symptoms like _______ loss and extreme light sensitivity. As pressure increases in the cranium, it may also make the person confused— one of the hallmarks of the disease. A few _____ in, the rapidly multiplying bacteria start to release toxins, leading to septicemia, also known as blood poisoning. This breaks down blood vessels, letting blood seep out and form what starts out looking like a rash, and evolves into big discoloured blots beneath the skin. At the same time, these toxins burn through oxygen in the blood, ________ the amount that gets to major ______ like the lungs and kidneys. That increases the chance of organ shut down —and alongside spreading __________, threatens death. That all ______ _____, but doctors are so good at ________ meningitis that a visit to the hospital can drastically reduce an adult’s risk of _____ from it. The longer it’s left _________, though, the more likely it will lead to _______ damage. If declining oxygen levels cause cell death in extreme parts of the body —like fingers, toes, arms and legs—the risk of __________ goes up. And if bacterial toxins accumulate in the brain and trigger cell death, meningitis could also cause long-term brain ______ and memory loss. So fast _________, or better yet, prevention, is critical. That's why most countries have vaccines that defend against the disease in its deadliest forms. Those are usually given to the people who are most at risk—like _____ children, people with weak immune systems, or people who gather in large ______ where an outbreak of meningitis could potentially happen.

Solution

  1. groups
  2. triggers
  3. hours
  4. reducing
  5. immune
  6. young
  7. septicemia
  8. lasting
  9. brain
  10. intense
  11. scary
  12. organs
  13. untreated
  14. stiffen
  15. damage
  16. dying
  17. treatment
  18. amputation
  19. sounds
  20. hearing
  21. treating
  22. bringing

Original Text

Inside the brain, the bacteria swiftly infect the meninges. This triggers inflammation as the body’s immune response kicks into overdrive, bringing on fever and intense headaches. As swelling in the meninges worsens, the neck begins to stiffen. Swelling in the brain disrupts its normal function— causing symptoms like hearing loss and extreme light sensitivity. As pressure increases in the cranium, it may also make the person confused— one of the hallmarks of the disease. A few hours in, the rapidly multiplying bacteria start to release toxins, leading to septicemia, also known as blood poisoning. This breaks down blood vessels, letting blood seep out and form what starts out looking like a rash, and evolves into big discoloured blots beneath the skin. At the same time, these toxins burn through oxygen in the blood, reducing the amount that gets to major organs like the lungs and kidneys. That increases the chance of organ shut down —and alongside spreading septicemia, threatens death. That all sounds scary, but doctors are so good at treating meningitis that a visit to the hospital can drastically reduce an adult’s risk of dying from it. The longer it’s left untreated, though, the more likely it will lead to lasting damage. If declining oxygen levels cause cell death in extreme parts of the body —like fingers, toes, arms and legs—the risk of amputation goes up. And if bacterial toxins accumulate in the brain and trigger cell death, meningitis could also cause long-term brain damage and memory loss. So fast treatment, or better yet, prevention, is critical. That's why most countries have vaccines that defend against the disease in its deadliest forms. Those are usually given to the people who are most at risk—like young children, people with weak immune systems, or people who gather in large groups where an outbreak of meningitis could potentially happen.

Important Words

  1. accumulate
  2. amount
  3. amputation
  4. arms
  5. bacteria
  6. bacterial
  7. begins
  8. beneath
  9. big
  10. blood
  11. blots
  12. body
  13. brain
  14. breaks
  15. bringing
  16. burn
  17. causing
  18. cell
  19. chance
  20. children
  21. countries
  22. cranium
  23. critical
  24. damage
  25. deadliest
  26. death
  27. declining
  28. defend
  29. discoloured
  30. disease
  31. disrupts
  32. doctors
  33. drastically
  34. dying
  35. evolves
  36. extreme
  37. fast
  38. fever
  39. fingers
  40. form
  41. forms
  42. gather
  43. good
  44. groups
  45. hallmarks
  46. happen
  47. headaches
  48. hearing
  49. hospital
  50. hours
  51. immune
  52. increases
  53. infect
  54. inflammation
  55. intense
  56. kicks
  57. kidneys
  58. large
  59. lasting
  60. lead
  61. leading
  62. left
  63. letting
  64. levels
  65. light
  66. longer
  67. loss
  68. lungs
  69. major
  70. memory
  71. meninges
  72. meningitis
  73. multiplying
  74. neck
  75. normal
  76. organ
  77. organs
  78. outbreak
  79. overdrive
  80. oxygen
  81. parts
  82. people
  83. person
  84. poisoning
  85. potentially
  86. pressure
  87. prevention
  88. rapidly
  89. rash
  90. reduce
  91. reducing
  92. release
  93. response
  94. risk
  95. scary
  96. seep
  97. sensitivity
  98. septicemia
  99. shut
  100. skin
  101. sounds
  102. spreading
  103. start
  104. starts
  105. stiffen
  106. swelling
  107. swiftly
  108. symptoms
  109. systems
  110. threatens
  111. time
  112. toes
  113. toxins
  114. treating
  115. treatment
  116. trigger
  117. triggers
  118. untreated
  119. vaccines
  120. vessels
  121. visit
  122. weak
  123. worsens
  124. young