full transcript

From the Ted Talk by Diane Knutson: Why we need darkness

Unscramble the Blue Letters

This modwrleaak prheces on a prriiae fowler singing its mating song. It's customary for meadowlarks to sing toward the rising sun. This one, however, was mistaken by the lights of Rapid City at 2 AM. Despite being 60 miles south of the Rapid City border and well within the bnoaiedrus of Wind Cave National Park, this songbird was singing out much too late to attract a mate. Have you ever tried aatntrticg a mate by calling them at 2 AM? (Laughter) My mhoetr told me nothing good happens after midnight. (lhtueagr) So why was this songbird so confused, mistaking the bright lights of Rapid City for the rnisig sun at 2 AM? Improper lighting and the over-illumination of residential neighborhoods, business signage, and steert lights brighten our night sky, creating an orange hue above the city for miles outside its border. Over 100 yraes ago, all creatures could look up and see a spectacular starry night sky. But now, eight out of ten children will never see the Milky Way from where they live. Light pollution doesn't only impact our view of the universe, it also impacts our environment, our individual hatelh, and eengry consumption. The three main components of light pollution include sky glow as well as glare and light trespass, which I will also explain. Glare is the excessive brightness that causes us visual discomfort. We often imnillutae araes in attempt to increase saefty. As children, we're afraid of the dark, so we flip on a night switch because "the ngiht is dark and full of terrors." And as adults, we do that now on a much grander scale. A 2015 study published in the Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health looked at statistics where researchers studied lights that were trnued on at certain hrous, demmid, or turned off completely, and found that it had no impact on traffic collisions or cmire. I want you to take a very close look at this picture. Mentally note what you see. With properly shielded lights, we can actually see what was there the entire time. Brighter does not mean safer. The third component of light pollution is light trespass. To understand this, I want you to envision your bedroom. Could you selep at night with no curtains? Or do you need those blackout shades tucked into every single crevice of that window pane, just in order to get a good night's sleep? If so, that is because of light trespass, the shining of light where it's unneeded, and unintended, and unwanted, from another source originating somewhere other than your own. Now that we've looked at what causes light pollution, let's take a look at where light pollution is. Here is a global map with light pollution depicted by various colors. Let's zoom in to our local area of impact. This is Rapid City. We are on the fonrt lines of a battle of lights versus dark. Zooming in closer to South Dakota, I want you to envision that you're downtown at Main Street Square, you've got your blanket, your chair, you're ready to stargaze. And then you look up, and you rezlaie you can see relatively very few stars. You cannot even see the Big dppeir. So you pack up all your belongings, you get in the car, you drive to the city liimts, where now you're in the orange zone, where eight out of ten aanrcmeis live, and we have a local observatory. You look up, you still cannot see the Milky Way. You keep on driving, you go deep into the Black Hills nainatol Forest, and then you see it, the sky glow the meadowlark was signing toward. To get to a ntulaarly dark sky, you would have to drive two hours north, to the corner of northwest South Dakota, an area called Slim Buttes, which has a Class 1 dark sky, a naturally lit sky, where the stars from the mikly Way snihe so bright it will cast a shadow of you on the grnuod. Rapid City is a Class 9 sky, the brightest depicted on the map, where light pitouolln is 100 up to 200 times brighter than our natural darkness. You cannot make out the North Star. But the thing is Rapid City is not alone. Light pollution plagues every modern city and town. The good news, however, is that light pollution could possibly be the simplest problem to solve and could llreality be done overnight, simply with the flip of a switch. So if at any point in this presentation you decide that it's important to protect our dark skies, I ask you to turn off your light in front of you, simply by twisting it off. Now just like in real life, here's a hint: You can ask your neighbor to shut off their light as well if their light is tnerassspig into your area and inhibiting your view of a TEDx peosietnrtan. (Laughter) Even if we all turn out our lights, more is nedeed to be done. One hundred years ago, this is the view from synikle Drive you would have seen. Today, this is a pirtcue taken this year during the Rapid City Dark Earth Hour. Which one do you prefer? So what are we going to do if we all turn out our lgiths and it's still bright? We need to protect nocturnal habitats, stargazing opportunities, and our nocturnal plants and animals. Now, bats. There's an idea. I know what we can do. Let's call Batman! He'll know what to do! Send the bat signal! Right? Oh, wait, maybe he didn't get the memo either. So let's shift our foucs to nnatuocrl ptlnas. In the balck hlils, there's a mfnooewolr that blooms only in dark nights. (Music) (Music ends) Earth eevovld with bright days and dark nhtgis. Another example of nocturnal life that needs darkness is the owl. Owls see five temis brighter than we do as humans because in their eyes they have light dnceitteg rods that are numbered at one million rods per square millimeter. Just because we can see with lights at night doesn't mean other creatures can. But even though we can see with artificial light at night, doesn't mean that it's healthy for us. The American Medical Association stteas "all creatures need darkness to srvuive." As light travels through our eye, it goes to a tacrt of a nucleus cluster of thousands of clles that send messages to our glands. Those glands secrete a naturally orriccung hormone called melatonin. The great thing about melatonin is it has geart anodtxnaiit qualities that rid our brain and body of free radicals that cause damage to our brain and body. The Journal of Epidemiology Research shows that exposure to artificial light at night has been lkiend to an increase in Alzheimer's, breast cancer, obesity, and depression. Let's take a look now at what our future holds. The map I showed you of South Dakota is a one from 1997, when in all reality, tonight's dark skies is much more closely, really, like the map of 2025. In only eight years, it's estimated that just eight dark sky places will remain in the United States. So if we can't call btaamn, what are we supposed to do? OK, I have another idea, hold on with me, this is a little bit better. Let's join the Dark Side. Maybe Kylo Ren and drath Vader had it right all along. But all jnokig aside, there really is something about the color spectrum. This is a color Kelvin chart, rating color by its temperature. The intteronianal Dark Sky Association rates colors below 3,000 Kelvins as dark sky friendly because it doesn't iimpar night vision. What else can we do? ardseds our fixtures, because dark skies doesn't have to mean dark ground. We can point lights down, where the light is intended. The International Dark Sky Association estimates that all of the outdoor lhitgnig wastes 30 pnrceet of lhigt that goes otwaurd and upward where it is not needed or intended, wistang money and creating more carbon emissions. In addition, this is a sample of a front porch light that could be converted into a full cfotuf fixture, reducing glare, sky glow, and light trespass. Streetlights that point light outward and urawpd could be rrttitefoed to point the light downward. Paris, the City of Light, took solving light pollution to a whole new level. They eacnted a lights-out cfeurw of 1 AM or one hour past the last employee's departure time. I challenge you to find your reason for #LightsOut. I wish you all a very dark night. (Applause)

Open Cloze

This __________ _______ on a _______ ______ singing its mating song. It's customary for meadowlarks to sing toward the rising sun. This one, however, was mistaken by the lights of Rapid City at 2 AM. Despite being 60 miles south of the Rapid City border and well within the __________ of Wind Cave National Park, this songbird was singing out much too late to attract a mate. Have you ever tried __________ a mate by calling them at 2 AM? (Laughter) My ______ told me nothing good happens after midnight. (________) So why was this songbird so confused, mistaking the bright lights of Rapid City for the ______ sun at 2 AM? Improper lighting and the over-illumination of residential neighborhoods, business signage, and ______ lights brighten our night sky, creating an orange hue above the city for miles outside its border. Over 100 _____ ago, all creatures could look up and see a spectacular starry night sky. But now, eight out of ten children will never see the Milky Way from where they live. Light pollution doesn't only impact our view of the universe, it also impacts our environment, our individual ______, and ______ consumption. The three main components of light pollution include sky glow as well as glare and light trespass, which I will also explain. Glare is the excessive brightness that causes us visual discomfort. We often __________ _____ in attempt to increase ______. As children, we're afraid of the dark, so we flip on a night switch because "the _____ is dark and full of terrors." And as adults, we do that now on a much grander scale. A 2015 study published in the Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health looked at statistics where researchers studied lights that were ______ on at certain _____, ______, or turned off completely, and found that it had no impact on traffic collisions or _____. I want you to take a very close look at this picture. Mentally note what you see. With properly shielded lights, we can actually see what was there the entire time. Brighter does not mean safer. The third component of light pollution is light trespass. To understand this, I want you to envision your bedroom. Could you _____ at night with no curtains? Or do you need those blackout shades tucked into every single crevice of that window pane, just in order to get a good night's sleep? If so, that is because of light trespass, the shining of light where it's unneeded, and unintended, and unwanted, from another source originating somewhere other than your own. Now that we've looked at what causes light pollution, let's take a look at where light pollution is. Here is a global map with light pollution depicted by various colors. Let's zoom in to our local area of impact. This is Rapid City. We are on the _____ lines of a battle of lights versus dark. Zooming in closer to South Dakota, I want you to envision that you're downtown at Main Street Square, you've got your blanket, your chair, you're ready to stargaze. And then you look up, and you _______ you can see relatively very few stars. You cannot even see the Big ______. So you pack up all your belongings, you get in the car, you drive to the city ______, where now you're in the orange zone, where eight out of ten _________ live, and we have a local observatory. You look up, you still cannot see the Milky Way. You keep on driving, you go deep into the Black Hills ________ Forest, and then you see it, the sky glow the meadowlark was _______ toward. To get to a _________ dark sky, you would have to drive two hours north, to the corner of northwest South Dakota, an area called Slim Buttes, which has a Class 1 dark sky, a naturally lit sky, where the stars from the _____ Way _____ so bright it will cast a shadow of you on the ______. Rapid City is a Class 9 sky, the brightest depicted on the map, where light _________ is 100 up to 200 times brighter than our natural darkness. You cannot make out the North Star. But the thing is Rapid City is not alone. Light pollution plagues every modern city and town. The good news, however, is that light pollution could possibly be the simplest problem to solve and could _________ be done overnight, simply with the flip of a switch. So if at any point in this presentation you decide that it's important to protect our dark skies, I ask you to turn off your light in front of you, simply by twisting it off. Now just like in real life, here's a hint: You can ask your neighbor to shut off their light as well if their light is ___________ into your area and inhibiting your view of a TEDx ____________. (Laughter) Even if we all turn out our lights, more is ______ to be done. One hundred years ago, this is the view from _______ Drive you would have seen. Today, this is a _______ taken this year during the Rapid City Dark Earth Hour. Which one do you prefer? So what are we going to do if we all turn out our ______ and it's still bright? We need to protect nocturnal habitats, stargazing opportunities, and our nocturnal plants and animals. Now, bats. There's an idea. I know what we can do. Let's call Batman! He'll know what to do! Send the bat signal! Right? Oh, wait, maybe he didn't get the memo either. So let's shift our _____ to _________ ______. In the _____ _____, there's a __________ that blooms only in dark nights. (Music) (Music ends) Earth _______ with bright days and dark ______. Another example of nocturnal life that needs darkness is the owl. Owls see five _____ brighter than we do as humans because in their eyes they have light _________ rods that are numbered at one million rods per square millimeter. Just because we can see with lights at night doesn't mean other creatures can. But even though we can see with artificial light at night, doesn't mean that it's healthy for us. The American Medical Association ______ "all creatures need darkness to _______." As light travels through our eye, it goes to a _____ of a nucleus cluster of thousands of _____ that send messages to our glands. Those glands secrete a naturally _________ hormone called melatonin. The great thing about melatonin is it has _____ ___________ qualities that rid our brain and body of free radicals that cause damage to our brain and body. The Journal of Epidemiology Research shows that exposure to artificial light at night has been ______ to an increase in Alzheimer's, breast cancer, obesity, and depression. Let's take a look now at what our future holds. The map I showed you of South Dakota is a one from 1997, when in all reality, tonight's dark skies is much more closely, really, like the map of 2025. In only eight years, it's estimated that just eight dark sky places will remain in the United States. So if we can't call ______, what are we supposed to do? OK, I have another idea, hold on with me, this is a little bit better. Let's join the Dark Side. Maybe Kylo Ren and _____ Vader had it right all along. But all ______ aside, there really is something about the color spectrum. This is a color Kelvin chart, rating color by its temperature. The _____________ Dark Sky Association rates colors below 3,000 Kelvins as dark sky friendly because it doesn't ______ night vision. What else can we do? _______ our fixtures, because dark skies doesn't have to mean dark ground. We can point lights down, where the light is intended. The International Dark Sky Association estimates that all of the outdoor ________ wastes 30 _______ of _____ that goes _______ and upward where it is not needed or intended, _______ money and creating more carbon emissions. In addition, this is a sample of a front porch light that could be converted into a full ______ fixture, reducing glare, sky glow, and light trespass. Streetlights that point light outward and ______ could be ___________ to point the light downward. Paris, the City of Light, took solving light pollution to a whole new level. They _______ a lights-out ______ of 1 AM or one hour past the last employee's departure time. I challenge you to find your reason for #LightsOut. I wish you all a very dark night. (Applause)

Solution

  1. times
  2. illuminate
  3. milky
  4. areas
  5. curfew
  6. nights
  7. impair
  8. laughter
  9. realize
  10. shine
  11. sleep
  12. boundaries
  13. turned
  14. light
  15. upward
  16. great
  17. linked
  18. plants
  19. safety
  20. picture
  21. energy
  22. skyline
  23. needed
  24. perches
  25. naturally
  26. rising
  27. dimmed
  28. crime
  29. meadowlark
  30. mother
  31. presentation
  32. prairie
  33. trespassing
  34. enacted
  35. ground
  36. wasting
  37. states
  38. night
  39. nocturnal
  40. health
  41. pollution
  42. batman
  43. limits
  44. singing
  45. attracting
  46. dipper
  47. americans
  48. outward
  49. evolved
  50. occurring
  51. national
  52. joking
  53. survive
  54. detecting
  55. tract
  56. darth
  57. front
  58. hours
  59. antioxidant
  60. focus
  61. cutoff
  62. lights
  63. literally
  64. black
  65. flower
  66. international
  67. street
  68. retrofitted
  69. percent
  70. address
  71. moonflower
  72. years
  73. cells
  74. hills
  75. lighting

Original Text

This meadowlark perches on a prairie flower singing its mating song. It's customary for meadowlarks to sing toward the rising sun. This one, however, was mistaken by the lights of Rapid City at 2 AM. Despite being 60 miles south of the Rapid City border and well within the boundaries of Wind Cave National Park, this songbird was singing out much too late to attract a mate. Have you ever tried attracting a mate by calling them at 2 AM? (Laughter) My mother told me nothing good happens after midnight. (Laughter) So why was this songbird so confused, mistaking the bright lights of Rapid City for the rising sun at 2 AM? Improper lighting and the over-illumination of residential neighborhoods, business signage, and street lights brighten our night sky, creating an orange hue above the city for miles outside its border. Over 100 years ago, all creatures could look up and see a spectacular starry night sky. But now, eight out of ten children will never see the Milky Way from where they live. Light pollution doesn't only impact our view of the universe, it also impacts our environment, our individual health, and energy consumption. The three main components of light pollution include sky glow as well as glare and light trespass, which I will also explain. Glare is the excessive brightness that causes us visual discomfort. We often illuminate areas in attempt to increase safety. As children, we're afraid of the dark, so we flip on a night switch because "the night is dark and full of terrors." And as adults, we do that now on a much grander scale. A 2015 study published in the Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health looked at statistics where researchers studied lights that were turned on at certain hours, dimmed, or turned off completely, and found that it had no impact on traffic collisions or crime. I want you to take a very close look at this picture. Mentally note what you see. With properly shielded lights, we can actually see what was there the entire time. Brighter does not mean safer. The third component of light pollution is light trespass. To understand this, I want you to envision your bedroom. Could you sleep at night with no curtains? Or do you need those blackout shades tucked into every single crevice of that window pane, just in order to get a good night's sleep? If so, that is because of light trespass, the shining of light where it's unneeded, and unintended, and unwanted, from another source originating somewhere other than your own. Now that we've looked at what causes light pollution, let's take a look at where light pollution is. Here is a global map with light pollution depicted by various colors. Let's zoom in to our local area of impact. This is Rapid City. We are on the front lines of a battle of lights versus dark. Zooming in closer to South Dakota, I want you to envision that you're downtown at Main Street Square, you've got your blanket, your chair, you're ready to stargaze. And then you look up, and you realize you can see relatively very few stars. You cannot even see the Big Dipper. So you pack up all your belongings, you get in the car, you drive to the city limits, where now you're in the orange zone, where eight out of ten Americans live, and we have a local observatory. You look up, you still cannot see the Milky Way. You keep on driving, you go deep into the Black Hills National Forest, and then you see it, the sky glow the meadowlark was singing toward. To get to a naturally dark sky, you would have to drive two hours north, to the corner of northwest South Dakota, an area called Slim Buttes, which has a Class 1 dark sky, a naturally lit sky, where the stars from the Milky Way shine so bright it will cast a shadow of you on the ground. Rapid City is a Class 9 sky, the brightest depicted on the map, where light pollution is 100 up to 200 times brighter than our natural darkness. You cannot make out the North Star. But the thing is Rapid City is not alone. Light pollution plagues every modern city and town. The good news, however, is that light pollution could possibly be the simplest problem to solve and could literally be done overnight, simply with the flip of a switch. So if at any point in this presentation you decide that it's important to protect our dark skies, I ask you to turn off your light in front of you, simply by twisting it off. Now just like in real life, here's a hint: You can ask your neighbor to shut off their light as well if their light is trespassing into your area and inhibiting your view of a TEDx presentation. (Laughter) Even if we all turn out our lights, more is needed to be done. One hundred years ago, this is the view from Skyline Drive you would have seen. Today, this is a picture taken this year during the Rapid City Dark Earth Hour. Which one do you prefer? So what are we going to do if we all turn out our lights and it's still bright? We need to protect nocturnal habitats, stargazing opportunities, and our nocturnal plants and animals. Now, bats. There's an idea. I know what we can do. Let's call Batman! He'll know what to do! Send the bat signal! Right? Oh, wait, maybe he didn't get the memo either. So let's shift our focus to nocturnal plants. In the Black Hills, there's a moonflower that blooms only in dark nights. (Music) (Music ends) Earth evolved with bright days and dark nights. Another example of nocturnal life that needs darkness is the owl. Owls see five times brighter than we do as humans because in their eyes they have light detecting rods that are numbered at one million rods per square millimeter. Just because we can see with lights at night doesn't mean other creatures can. But even though we can see with artificial light at night, doesn't mean that it's healthy for us. The American Medical Association states "all creatures need darkness to survive." As light travels through our eye, it goes to a tract of a nucleus cluster of thousands of cells that send messages to our glands. Those glands secrete a naturally occurring hormone called melatonin. The great thing about melatonin is it has great antioxidant qualities that rid our brain and body of free radicals that cause damage to our brain and body. The Journal of Epidemiology Research shows that exposure to artificial light at night has been linked to an increase in Alzheimer's, breast cancer, obesity, and depression. Let's take a look now at what our future holds. The map I showed you of South Dakota is a one from 1997, when in all reality, tonight's dark skies is much more closely, really, like the map of 2025. In only eight years, it's estimated that just eight dark sky places will remain in the United States. So if we can't call Batman, what are we supposed to do? OK, I have another idea, hold on with me, this is a little bit better. Let's join the Dark Side. Maybe Kylo Ren and Darth Vader had it right all along. But all joking aside, there really is something about the color spectrum. This is a color Kelvin chart, rating color by its temperature. The International Dark Sky Association rates colors below 3,000 Kelvins as dark sky friendly because it doesn't impair night vision. What else can we do? Address our fixtures, because dark skies doesn't have to mean dark ground. We can point lights down, where the light is intended. The International Dark Sky Association estimates that all of the outdoor lighting wastes 30 percent of light that goes outward and upward where it is not needed or intended, wasting money and creating more carbon emissions. In addition, this is a sample of a front porch light that could be converted into a full cutoff fixture, reducing glare, sky glow, and light trespass. Streetlights that point light outward and upward could be retrofitted to point the light downward. Paris, the City of Light, took solving light pollution to a whole new level. They enacted a lights-out curfew of 1 AM or one hour past the last employee's departure time. I challenge you to find your reason for #LightsOut. I wish you all a very dark night. (Applause)

Frequently Occurring Word Combinations

ngrams of length 2

collocation frequency
light pollution 9
rapid city 7
dark sky 4
rising sun 2
sky glow 2
light trespass 2
times brighter 2
nocturnal plants 2
dark nights 2
artificial light 2
dark skies 2
international dark 2
sky association 2

ngrams of length 3

collocation frequency
international dark sky 2
dark sky association 2

ngrams of length 4

collocation frequency
international dark sky association 2

Important Words

  1. addition
  2. address
  3. adults
  4. afraid
  5. american
  6. americans
  7. animals
  8. antioxidant
  9. applause
  10. area
  11. areas
  12. artificial
  13. association
  14. attempt
  15. attract
  16. attracting
  17. bat
  18. batman
  19. bats
  20. battle
  21. bedroom
  22. belongings
  23. big
  24. bit
  25. black
  26. blackout
  27. blanket
  28. blooms
  29. body
  30. border
  31. boundaries
  32. brain
  33. breast
  34. bright
  35. brighten
  36. brighter
  37. brightest
  38. brightness
  39. business
  40. buttes
  41. call
  42. called
  43. calling
  44. cancer
  45. car
  46. carbon
  47. cast
  48. cave
  49. cells
  50. chair
  51. challenge
  52. chart
  53. children
  54. city
  55. class
  56. close
  57. closely
  58. closer
  59. cluster
  60. collisions
  61. color
  62. colors
  63. community
  64. completely
  65. component
  66. components
  67. confused
  68. consumption
  69. converted
  70. corner
  71. creating
  72. creatures
  73. crevice
  74. crime
  75. curfew
  76. curtains
  77. customary
  78. cutoff
  79. dakota
  80. damage
  81. dark
  82. darkness
  83. darth
  84. days
  85. decide
  86. deep
  87. departure
  88. depicted
  89. depression
  90. detecting
  91. dimmed
  92. dipper
  93. discomfort
  94. downtown
  95. downward
  96. drive
  97. driving
  98. earth
  99. emissions
  100. enacted
  101. ends
  102. energy
  103. entire
  104. environment
  105. envision
  106. epidemiology
  107. estimated
  108. estimates
  109. evolved
  110. excessive
  111. explain
  112. exposure
  113. eye
  114. eyes
  115. find
  116. fixture
  117. fixtures
  118. flip
  119. flower
  120. focus
  121. forest
  122. free
  123. friendly
  124. front
  125. full
  126. future
  127. glands
  128. glare
  129. global
  130. glow
  131. good
  132. grander
  133. great
  134. ground
  135. habitats
  136. health
  137. healthy
  138. hills
  139. hold
  140. holds
  141. hormone
  142. hour
  143. hours
  144. hue
  145. humans
  146. idea
  147. illuminate
  148. impact
  149. impacts
  150. impair
  151. important
  152. improper
  153. include
  154. increase
  155. individual
  156. inhibiting
  157. intended
  158. international
  159. join
  160. joking
  161. journal
  162. kelvin
  163. kelvins
  164. kylo
  165. late
  166. laughter
  167. level
  168. life
  169. light
  170. lighting
  171. lights
  172. limits
  173. lines
  174. linked
  175. lit
  176. literally
  177. live
  178. local
  179. looked
  180. main
  181. map
  182. mate
  183. mating
  184. meadowlark
  185. meadowlarks
  186. medical
  187. melatonin
  188. memo
  189. mentally
  190. messages
  191. midnight
  192. miles
  193. milky
  194. millimeter
  195. million
  196. mistaken
  197. mistaking
  198. modern
  199. money
  200. moonflower
  201. mother
  202. music
  203. national
  204. natural
  205. naturally
  206. needed
  207. neighbor
  208. neighborhoods
  209. news
  210. night
  211. nights
  212. nocturnal
  213. north
  214. northwest
  215. note
  216. nucleus
  217. numbered
  218. obesity
  219. observatory
  220. occurring
  221. opportunities
  222. orange
  223. order
  224. originating
  225. outdoor
  226. outward
  227. overnight
  228. owl
  229. owls
  230. pack
  231. pane
  232. paris
  233. park
  234. percent
  235. perches
  236. picture
  237. places
  238. plagues
  239. plants
  240. point
  241. pollution
  242. porch
  243. possibly
  244. prairie
  245. prefer
  246. presentation
  247. problem
  248. properly
  249. protect
  250. published
  251. qualities
  252. radicals
  253. rapid
  254. rates
  255. rating
  256. ready
  257. real
  258. reality
  259. realize
  260. reason
  261. reducing
  262. remain
  263. ren
  264. research
  265. researchers
  266. residential
  267. retrofitted
  268. rid
  269. rising
  270. rods
  271. safer
  272. safety
  273. sample
  274. scale
  275. secrete
  276. send
  277. shades
  278. shadow
  279. shielded
  280. shift
  281. shine
  282. shining
  283. showed
  284. shows
  285. shut
  286. side
  287. signage
  288. simplest
  289. simply
  290. sing
  291. singing
  292. single
  293. skies
  294. sky
  295. skyline
  296. sleep
  297. slim
  298. solve
  299. solving
  300. song
  301. songbird
  302. source
  303. south
  304. spectacular
  305. spectrum
  306. square
  307. star
  308. stargaze
  309. stargazing
  310. starry
  311. stars
  312. states
  313. statistics
  314. street
  315. streetlights
  316. studied
  317. study
  318. sun
  319. supposed
  320. survive
  321. switch
  322. tedx
  323. temperature
  324. ten
  325. terrors
  326. thousands
  327. time
  328. times
  329. today
  330. told
  331. town
  332. tract
  333. traffic
  334. travels
  335. trespass
  336. trespassing
  337. tucked
  338. turn
  339. turned
  340. twisting
  341. understand
  342. unintended
  343. united
  344. universe
  345. unneeded
  346. unwanted
  347. upward
  348. vader
  349. view
  350. vision
  351. visual
  352. wait
  353. wastes
  354. wasting
  355. wind
  356. window
  357. year
  358. years
  359. zone
  360. zoom
  361. zooming