full transcript

From the Ted Talk by James Orsulak: Why we need to move manufacturing off-planet

Unscramble the Blue Letters

All of the resources that we have ever used as a ciiatiolvizn have come from the same pacle. Everything. All the eegrny, the fules, minerals, mtelas, construction materials. The water, the air that you're breathing right now. Every resource that we've ever used has come from the same place: Earth. Now, this actually pstrenes a sereve problem, because when we study biological history, we very quickly see that any time there's a dominant species in a finite ecosystem, consuming a ltieimd aumont of resources, that species will cpsolale. Now, that collapse usually begins at 50%. When a species has converted 50% of its environment, the ecosystem becomes unaslbte, and it changes. It’s no longer suitable for that particular species. Now, here’s the scary part. There are 7 billion people on this planet. We are the dominant species. And we’ve converted 43% of the available land mass on Earth. By the year 2050, there will be 9 billion people on our planet and we will be well past 50%. That means most of the people sitting in this aruduitoim will see this begin. We don’t know exactly what it's going to look like, we don't know exactly what the impact is going to be, but the wrsot case scenario is the end of the human race. Because Earth is no longer subtlaie for human life. Now, the reason that this problem exists is because it’s in our nature. Human beings cuonsme resources. They alter their eivnmorennt so they can reproduce. It’s the very definition of biological life. The problem is we’re rnuinng out of room, we're running out of resources and now we're running out of time. So we need a plan. What if - what if there was a way that we could make our ecosystem bigger? If we expand our view and we look out into space, we see that all the resources we hold of value here at home - energy, fuels, metals, wtaer - are available in nearly infinite quantities in our solar system. What if there’s a way we could use those resources to pvreent the collapse of our civilization? Now, I know, that sdnous impossible. It sounds like sceince fiction. But I have a different viewpoint than you do. I work with some of the smartest people in the world: engineers who have cinnsettosly landed robots on other planets; a lot of scientists, rocket ssiitectns, data scientists, planetary scientists, artificial intelligence exprets. I’m the head of strategic partnerships for the largest asteroid-mining company in the world. And I believe we can use the resources of sacpe to save our planet. We have proven again and again that we know how to destroy an environment. Now it’s time for us to prove that we can save it. From my vngtaae point, I see that there's more computing power in your car’s key fob than we use to send the astronauts to the Moon. That means we can do incredible things in space with cheap, affordable robots. For the very first time in hrtsioy we’ve amassed the tcglcnioahoel toolkit that we need to dispatch autonomous robotic explorers out into the solar system to find and access these resources and put them to work. Imagine a future where the resources we need do not only come from this planet, a future where we have access to the vast resources of space and we are using them to improve life here on Earth. That’s the future I’m going to show you. It all starts with water. See, today if you want water in space you have to take that resource, you have to load it onto a rocket and launch it into space. Now, that’s a shame because there’s a lot of water in space. There’s water on asteroids, on ceotms, on the poles of our Moon, and on other planets. Water is everywhere in space. And that’s a good thing because water is one of the most critical resources we will need. You see, this plan involves a lot of robots, but it also iovlvens a lot of people. People will be living and working in space to make this possible. And those people need water for snasetucne, for hygiene, for growing food. But water in space is also fuel. If we pass water through an ectarelicl field, we can produce liquid hydrogen and liquid oxygen. That’s high-efficiency rocket propellant. So if the source water from space and turn it into rkeoct propellant, we can set up fuel doepts in the solar system, gas stations! And when we do that, for the first time we have access to this new resource base because we’re not trying to launch all our fuel from Earth. And now that we have acescs, we can turn our sights to the next step: construction. You see, asteroids are also made of pure, high-quality metals: nickel, iron, cobalt, platinum. This is the first object that was created from an asteroid. It was the 3D-printed from a meteorite. It’s very heavy, it’s very strong, you’d never want to launch something like this into space from Earth. But if you source metals from space and feed them to orbital construction robots - which by the way, that's already a thing, we already have that - then you can cteare structures that are no logenr limited by size. See, this is the inniatrenaotl Space saitotn. It is the most expensive object hamnus have ever built. It cost a hundred billion dollars. Why was it so expensive? Well, it was created using the resources of Earth, that were turned into products, loaded onto rockets, launched into space and then assembled by humans. But that’s backwards. It doesn’t make sense aoyrnme. That’s like roughly the equivalent of you livnig in Europe and saying, "I’m going to move to the United States and build a house there, but I’m going to ship all the materials to build that house across the ocean; all of the wood, the metal, the plumbing, the electrical, the shower hades, I'm going to ship it across the oeacn,'' when all of the resources you need are already there at your destination. It doesn't make sense. We can reduce the cost and litocsgial inefficiencies of bniiudlg large livable structures in space by a factor of a hundred by simply sourcing what we need from our destination. So we can bulid things in space! What should we build? Well, energy is the single lsaergt driver of resource consumption in the wrold. We mine for coal. We drill for oil and natural gas. We mine for metals to build our wind plants. We mine for silicon to make our solar panels. We mine for nickel to make batteries so we can stroe it. One thing remains the same. As the population gwors, so does the energy demand, so does the resource consumption that goes with it. We've always assumed that our energy production must happen here on Earth because there's never been an aavintterle, because we haven't bliut one. If we use the resources of space, we can create mavssie, kilometer-scale solar famrs in space. These huge facilities will capture the energy of the sun, that shines in space 24 hours a day, and beam that energy back to Earth. The technology to do this exstis today, but it's simply too expensive when we try to use the resources of Earth. But if we use the resources in space, we can create planetary-scale macrogrids. You've heard of the electricity grid, maybe you've heard of the microgrid. This is the opposite. This is a planetary-scale, power-generation system. It's the energy that we need and the energy is in space. It's not the rsreuceos buried under our feet. So we have water, fuel, construction capitiebalis, now poewr, we have all of the utilities we need to build cities in space. Orbital megastructures spun up to produce artificial gravity so they're lilbave for lgrae populations. These are emerging today as commercial space stations. They're rseaecrh labs for soievgern astronauts from around the world; hotels for adventurous tourists, certainly. But the primary function of these facilities will be manufacturing. We will build things in space. It starts with satellites and spacecraft. Why would we want to build satellites in space? Today when we build a satellite, it's constrained by the rocket that takes it to space. It has to be built and designed to fit on top of that rocket. And it has to be designed to survive the violent rocket launch to the atmosphere. (mikicmnig a rocket) (Laughter) But if we remove that constraint, we can build things that are as big as our imigtinaaon and vastly more capable. And if we've come this far, we can take the final step and we can start to slove our resource cisris. We can move our industrial manufacturing into space, all of it. You see, manufacturing is resource consumption. We use the resources of Earth, we turn them into manufactured products, so we can sell them and do useful things. That is what divres cermmcoe on Earth. But what if we reverse that? What if we gahetr and harvest all of our raw materials and resources from deep space and iprmot them to an orbital manufacturing ring around the planet, and then return only the fsihiend products to the surface? Let's use your smpanhtore as an example. This was created using raw materials from Earth. Yet, every single one of the raw materials in this exists in infinite quantities in space. The most expensive component of your phone is platinum, and platinum is readily available in near-earth asteroids passing by us all the time. This is cteraed here on Earth using the resources of Earth, in a factory that produces emissions, consumes resources. They use toxic cchlieams like benzene to produce this. And that factory produces hazardous waste that's the byproduct of manufacturing. That's the bad stuff: poisons, toxins, heavy metals, ritaiaodn. The problem is all of the hruzoaads waste from manufacturing is stuck with us here in the finite ecosystem that we live in. It's poisoning our air, our water, our fish, our wlidfile, our food our kids! Do you know where this should not be made? (lteaghur) (Breathing in) (Breathing out) (Laughter) In the only breathable atmosphere that we know of anywhere, a resource that we take for granted every minute of every day. So if we do this, we reverse the human sppluy chain, we push all of our mining and mntfiurnaacug outside the atmosphere, what have we done? We've now zoned the Earth for residential access only. iniamge if you walked outside one day and there were no factories, no power plants, no refineries, no oil rigs, no pilenieps to protest, and instead we simply aollewd the planet to return to a more naruatl state, we intentionally selziiabtd our environment. We'd have more space here on ertah, more room for the population, because we're not trying to live on top of our consumable roscuere base. And to be clear, this is not a vision about scarcity. And yes, we still have to conserve all of the precious resources we have here at home. But this is a vision about abundance. It's about having access to all of the resources we need to grow as a civilization. They're simply coming from a different place. Now, I know, I know this sounds impossible, but it's happening fast, faster than you could ever imagine, and it's already started. My kids are two. By the time they're in high school, they will see operational asteroid mines. They'll grow up in a world knowing that the resources we need do not slpmiy come from only this planet. As a parent this gives me a lot of hope, because I want to create a world for those kids that gets better and better, not worse and worse. And when someone asks them, "Why we should be eipxrlong space when we have so many plmbores here at home?", they will know the answer to that. The resources of space are the solutions to our greatest problems. It is only by exploring space that we safeguard this world, the one that matters the most. This is what I ask of you: believe that this is possible, because for the very first time in human history, it is possible. When we access the ifnnitie resources of space, we do so so we can protect and prerevse the single most important asset that we know of anywhere in the universe, the only place that we know of that can support haumn life: our home, Earth. Thank you. (Applause)

Open Cloze

All of the resources that we have ever used as a ____________ have come from the same _____. Everything. All the ______, the _____, minerals, ______, construction materials. The water, the air that you're breathing right now. Every resource that we've ever used has come from the same place: Earth. Now, this actually ________ a ______ problem, because when we study biological history, we very quickly see that any time there's a dominant species in a finite ecosystem, consuming a _______ ______ of resources, that species will ________. Now, that collapse usually begins at 50%. When a species has converted 50% of its environment, the ecosystem becomes ________, and it changes. It’s no longer suitable for that particular species. Now, here’s the scary part. There are 7 billion people on this planet. We are the dominant species. And we’ve converted 43% of the available land mass on Earth. By the year 2050, there will be 9 billion people on our planet and we will be well past 50%. That means most of the people sitting in this __________ will see this begin. We don’t know exactly what it's going to look like, we don't know exactly what the impact is going to be, but the _____ case scenario is the end of the human race. Because Earth is no longer ________ for human life. Now, the reason that this problem exists is because it’s in our nature. Human beings _______ resources. They alter their ___________ so they can reproduce. It’s the very definition of biological life. The problem is we’re _______ out of room, we're running out of resources and now we're running out of time. So we need a plan. What if - what if there was a way that we could make our ecosystem bigger? If we expand our view and we look out into space, we see that all the resources we hold of value here at home - energy, fuels, metals, _____ - are available in nearly infinite quantities in our solar system. What if there’s a way we could use those resources to _______ the collapse of our civilization? Now, I know, that ______ impossible. It sounds like _______ fiction. But I have a different viewpoint than you do. I work with some of the smartest people in the world: engineers who have ____________ landed robots on other planets; a lot of scientists, rocket __________, data scientists, planetary scientists, artificial intelligence _______. I’m the head of strategic partnerships for the largest asteroid-mining company in the world. And I believe we can use the resources of _____ to save our planet. We have proven again and again that we know how to destroy an environment. Now it’s time for us to prove that we can save it. From my _______ point, I see that there's more computing power in your car’s key fob than we use to send the astronauts to the Moon. That means we can do incredible things in space with cheap, affordable robots. For the very first time in _______ we’ve amassed the _____________ toolkit that we need to dispatch autonomous robotic explorers out into the solar system to find and access these resources and put them to work. Imagine a future where the resources we need do not only come from this planet, a future where we have access to the vast resources of space and we are using them to improve life here on Earth. That’s the future I’m going to show you. It all starts with water. See, today if you want water in space you have to take that resource, you have to load it onto a rocket and launch it into space. Now, that’s a shame because there’s a lot of water in space. There’s water on asteroids, on ______, on the poles of our Moon, and on other planets. Water is everywhere in space. And that’s a good thing because water is one of the most critical resources we will need. You see, this plan involves a lot of robots, but it also ________ a lot of people. People will be living and working in space to make this possible. And those people need water for __________, for hygiene, for growing food. But water in space is also fuel. If we pass water through an __________ field, we can produce liquid hydrogen and liquid oxygen. That’s high-efficiency rocket propellant. So if the source water from space and turn it into ______ propellant, we can set up fuel ______ in the solar system, gas stations! And when we do that, for the first time we have access to this new resource base because we’re not trying to launch all our fuel from Earth. And now that we have ______, we can turn our sights to the next step: construction. You see, asteroids are also made of pure, high-quality metals: nickel, iron, cobalt, platinum. This is the first object that was created from an asteroid. It was the 3D-printed from a meteorite. It’s very heavy, it’s very strong, you’d never want to launch something like this into space from Earth. But if you source metals from space and feed them to orbital construction robots - which by the way, that's already a thing, we already have that - then you can ______ structures that are no ______ limited by size. See, this is the _____________ Space _______. It is the most expensive object ______ have ever built. It cost a hundred billion dollars. Why was it so expensive? Well, it was created using the resources of Earth, that were turned into products, loaded onto rockets, launched into space and then assembled by humans. But that’s backwards. It doesn’t make sense _______. That’s like roughly the equivalent of you ______ in Europe and saying, "I’m going to move to the United States and build a house there, but I’m going to ship all the materials to build that house across the ocean; all of the wood, the metal, the plumbing, the electrical, the shower _____, I'm going to ship it across the _____,'' when all of the resources you need are already there at your destination. It doesn't make sense. We can reduce the cost and __________ inefficiencies of ________ large livable structures in space by a factor of a hundred by simply sourcing what we need from our destination. So we can _____ things in space! What should we build? Well, energy is the single _______ driver of resource consumption in the _____. We mine for coal. We drill for oil and natural gas. We mine for metals to build our wind plants. We mine for silicon to make our solar panels. We mine for nickel to make batteries so we can _____ it. One thing remains the same. As the population _____, so does the energy demand, so does the resource consumption that goes with it. We've always assumed that our energy production must happen here on Earth because there's never been an ___________, because we haven't _____ one. If we use the resources of space, we can create _______, kilometer-scale solar _____ in space. These huge facilities will capture the energy of the sun, that shines in space 24 hours a day, and beam that energy back to Earth. The technology to do this ______ today, but it's simply too expensive when we try to use the resources of Earth. But if we use the resources in space, we can create planetary-scale macrogrids. You've heard of the electricity grid, maybe you've heard of the microgrid. This is the opposite. This is a planetary-scale, power-generation system. It's the energy that we need and the energy is in space. It's not the _________ buried under our feet. So we have water, fuel, construction ____________, now _____, we have all of the utilities we need to build cities in space. Orbital megastructures spun up to produce artificial gravity so they're _______ for _____ populations. These are emerging today as commercial space stations. They're ________ labs for _________ astronauts from around the world; hotels for adventurous tourists, certainly. But the primary function of these facilities will be manufacturing. We will build things in space. It starts with satellites and spacecraft. Why would we want to build satellites in space? Today when we build a satellite, it's constrained by the rocket that takes it to space. It has to be built and designed to fit on top of that rocket. And it has to be designed to survive the violent rocket launch to the atmosphere. (_________ a rocket) (Laughter) But if we remove that constraint, we can build things that are as big as our ___________ and vastly more capable. And if we've come this far, we can take the final step and we can start to _____ our resource ______. We can move our industrial manufacturing into space, all of it. You see, manufacturing is resource consumption. We use the resources of Earth, we turn them into manufactured products, so we can sell them and do useful things. That is what ______ ________ on Earth. But what if we reverse that? What if we ______ and harvest all of our raw materials and resources from deep space and ______ them to an orbital manufacturing ring around the planet, and then return only the ________ products to the surface? Let's use your __________ as an example. This was created using raw materials from Earth. Yet, every single one of the raw materials in this exists in infinite quantities in space. The most expensive component of your phone is platinum, and platinum is readily available in near-earth asteroids passing by us all the time. This is _______ here on Earth using the resources of Earth, in a factory that produces emissions, consumes resources. They use toxic _________ like benzene to produce this. And that factory produces hazardous waste that's the byproduct of manufacturing. That's the bad stuff: poisons, toxins, heavy metals, _________. The problem is all of the _________ waste from manufacturing is stuck with us here in the finite ecosystem that we live in. It's poisoning our air, our water, our fish, our ________, our food our kids! Do you know where this should not be made? (________) (Breathing in) (Breathing out) (Laughter) In the only breathable atmosphere that we know of anywhere, a resource that we take for granted every minute of every day. So if we do this, we reverse the human ______ chain, we push all of our mining and _____________ outside the atmosphere, what have we done? We've now zoned the Earth for residential access only. _______ if you walked outside one day and there were no factories, no power plants, no refineries, no oil rigs, no _________ to protest, and instead we simply _______ the planet to return to a more _______ state, we intentionally __________ our environment. We'd have more space here on _____, more room for the population, because we're not trying to live on top of our consumable ________ base. And to be clear, this is not a vision about scarcity. And yes, we still have to conserve all of the precious resources we have here at home. But this is a vision about abundance. It's about having access to all of the resources we need to grow as a civilization. They're simply coming from a different place. Now, I know, I know this sounds impossible, but it's happening fast, faster than you could ever imagine, and it's already started. My kids are two. By the time they're in high school, they will see operational asteroid mines. They'll grow up in a world knowing that the resources we need do not ______ come from only this planet. As a parent this gives me a lot of hope, because I want to create a world for those kids that gets better and better, not worse and worse. And when someone asks them, "Why we should be _________ space when we have so many ________ here at home?", they will know the answer to that. The resources of space are the solutions to our greatest problems. It is only by exploring space that we safeguard this world, the one that matters the most. This is what I ask of you: believe that this is possible, because for the very first time in human history, it is possible. When we access the ________ resources of space, we do so so we can protect and ________ the single most important asset that we know of anywhere in the universe, the only place that we know of that can support _____ life: our home, Earth. Thank you. (Applause)

Solution

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  2. sovereign
  3. unstable
  4. wildlife
  5. humans
  6. allowed
  7. preserve
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  16. created
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  19. scientists
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  22. laughter
  23. experts
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  25. resource
  26. radiation
  27. metals
  28. human
  29. hazardous
  30. ocean
  31. collapse
  32. consume
  33. built
  34. logistical
  35. large
  36. stabilized
  37. science
  38. suitable
  39. space
  40. limited
  41. heads
  42. grows
  43. world
  44. comets
  45. severe
  46. amount
  47. drives
  48. chemicals
  49. water
  50. manufacturing
  51. solve
  52. sounds
  53. place
  54. pipelines
  55. imagination
  56. longer
  57. auditorium
  58. mimicking
  59. civilization
  60. create
  61. gather
  62. livable
  63. store
  64. depots
  65. access
  66. exists
  67. rocket
  68. problems
  69. station
  70. farms
  71. build
  72. imagine
  73. power
  74. smartphone
  75. research
  76. living
  77. alternative
  78. capabilities
  79. import
  80. massive
  81. crisis
  82. largest
  83. energy
  84. consistently
  85. natural
  86. finished
  87. running
  88. earth
  89. building
  90. involves
  91. infinite
  92. commerce
  93. sustenance
  94. vantage

Original Text

All of the resources that we have ever used as a civilization have come from the same place. Everything. All the energy, the fuels, minerals, metals, construction materials. The water, the air that you're breathing right now. Every resource that we've ever used has come from the same place: Earth. Now, this actually presents a severe problem, because when we study biological history, we very quickly see that any time there's a dominant species in a finite ecosystem, consuming a limited amount of resources, that species will collapse. Now, that collapse usually begins at 50%. When a species has converted 50% of its environment, the ecosystem becomes unstable, and it changes. It’s no longer suitable for that particular species. Now, here’s the scary part. There are 7 billion people on this planet. We are the dominant species. And we’ve converted 43% of the available land mass on Earth. By the year 2050, there will be 9 billion people on our planet and we will be well past 50%. That means most of the people sitting in this auditorium will see this begin. We don’t know exactly what it's going to look like, we don't know exactly what the impact is going to be, but the worst case scenario is the end of the human race. Because Earth is no longer suitable for human life. Now, the reason that this problem exists is because it’s in our nature. Human beings consume resources. They alter their environment so they can reproduce. It’s the very definition of biological life. The problem is we’re running out of room, we're running out of resources and now we're running out of time. So we need a plan. What if - what if there was a way that we could make our ecosystem bigger? If we expand our view and we look out into space, we see that all the resources we hold of value here at home - energy, fuels, metals, water - are available in nearly infinite quantities in our solar system. What if there’s a way we could use those resources to prevent the collapse of our civilization? Now, I know, that sounds impossible. It sounds like science fiction. But I have a different viewpoint than you do. I work with some of the smartest people in the world: engineers who have consistently landed robots on other planets; a lot of scientists, rocket scientists, data scientists, planetary scientists, artificial intelligence experts. I’m the head of strategic partnerships for the largest asteroid-mining company in the world. And I believe we can use the resources of space to save our planet. We have proven again and again that we know how to destroy an environment. Now it’s time for us to prove that we can save it. From my vantage point, I see that there's more computing power in your car’s key fob than we use to send the astronauts to the Moon. That means we can do incredible things in space with cheap, affordable robots. For the very first time in history we’ve amassed the technological toolkit that we need to dispatch autonomous robotic explorers out into the solar system to find and access these resources and put them to work. Imagine a future where the resources we need do not only come from this planet, a future where we have access to the vast resources of space and we are using them to improve life here on Earth. That’s the future I’m going to show you. It all starts with water. See, today if you want water in space you have to take that resource, you have to load it onto a rocket and launch it into space. Now, that’s a shame because there’s a lot of water in space. There’s water on asteroids, on comets, on the poles of our Moon, and on other planets. Water is everywhere in space. And that’s a good thing because water is one of the most critical resources we will need. You see, this plan involves a lot of robots, but it also involves a lot of people. People will be living and working in space to make this possible. And those people need water for sustenance, for hygiene, for growing food. But water in space is also fuel. If we pass water through an electrical field, we can produce liquid hydrogen and liquid oxygen. That’s high-efficiency rocket propellant. So if the source water from space and turn it into rocket propellant, we can set up fuel depots in the solar system, gas stations! And when we do that, for the first time we have access to this new resource base because we’re not trying to launch all our fuel from Earth. And now that we have access, we can turn our sights to the next step: construction. You see, asteroids are also made of pure, high-quality metals: nickel, iron, cobalt, platinum. This is the first object that was created from an asteroid. It was the 3D-printed from a meteorite. It’s very heavy, it’s very strong, you’d never want to launch something like this into space from Earth. But if you source metals from space and feed them to orbital construction robots - which by the way, that's already a thing, we already have that - then you can create structures that are no longer limited by size. See, this is the International Space Station. It is the most expensive object humans have ever built. It cost a hundred billion dollars. Why was it so expensive? Well, it was created using the resources of Earth, that were turned into products, loaded onto rockets, launched into space and then assembled by humans. But that’s backwards. It doesn’t make sense anymore. That’s like roughly the equivalent of you living in Europe and saying, "I’m going to move to the United States and build a house there, but I’m going to ship all the materials to build that house across the ocean; all of the wood, the metal, the plumbing, the electrical, the shower heads, I'm going to ship it across the ocean,'' when all of the resources you need are already there at your destination. It doesn't make sense. We can reduce the cost and logistical inefficiencies of building large livable structures in space by a factor of a hundred by simply sourcing what we need from our destination. So we can build things in space! What should we build? Well, energy is the single largest driver of resource consumption in the world. We mine for coal. We drill for oil and natural gas. We mine for metals to build our wind plants. We mine for silicon to make our solar panels. We mine for nickel to make batteries so we can store it. One thing remains the same. As the population grows, so does the energy demand, so does the resource consumption that goes with it. We've always assumed that our energy production must happen here on Earth because there's never been an alternative, because we haven't built one. If we use the resources of space, we can create massive, kilometer-scale solar farms in space. These huge facilities will capture the energy of the sun, that shines in space 24 hours a day, and beam that energy back to Earth. The technology to do this exists today, but it's simply too expensive when we try to use the resources of Earth. But if we use the resources in space, we can create planetary-scale macrogrids. You've heard of the electricity grid, maybe you've heard of the microgrid. This is the opposite. This is a planetary-scale, power-generation system. It's the energy that we need and the energy is in space. It's not the resources buried under our feet. So we have water, fuel, construction capabilities, now power, we have all of the utilities we need to build cities in space. Orbital megastructures spun up to produce artificial gravity so they're livable for large populations. These are emerging today as commercial space stations. They're research labs for sovereign astronauts from around the world; hotels for adventurous tourists, certainly. But the primary function of these facilities will be manufacturing. We will build things in space. It starts with satellites and spacecraft. Why would we want to build satellites in space? Today when we build a satellite, it's constrained by the rocket that takes it to space. It has to be built and designed to fit on top of that rocket. And it has to be designed to survive the violent rocket launch to the atmosphere. (Mimicking a rocket) (Laughter) But if we remove that constraint, we can build things that are as big as our imagination and vastly more capable. And if we've come this far, we can take the final step and we can start to solve our resource crisis. We can move our industrial manufacturing into space, all of it. You see, manufacturing is resource consumption. We use the resources of Earth, we turn them into manufactured products, so we can sell them and do useful things. That is what drives commerce on Earth. But what if we reverse that? What if we gather and harvest all of our raw materials and resources from deep space and import them to an orbital manufacturing ring around the planet, and then return only the finished products to the surface? Let's use your smartphone as an example. This was created using raw materials from Earth. Yet, every single one of the raw materials in this exists in infinite quantities in space. The most expensive component of your phone is platinum, and platinum is readily available in near-earth asteroids passing by us all the time. This is created here on Earth using the resources of Earth, in a factory that produces emissions, consumes resources. They use toxic chemicals like benzene to produce this. And that factory produces hazardous waste that's the byproduct of manufacturing. That's the bad stuff: poisons, toxins, heavy metals, radiation. The problem is all of the hazardous waste from manufacturing is stuck with us here in the finite ecosystem that we live in. It's poisoning our air, our water, our fish, our wildlife, our food our kids! Do you know where this should not be made? (Laughter) (Breathing in) (Breathing out) (Laughter) In the only breathable atmosphere that we know of anywhere, a resource that we take for granted every minute of every day. So if we do this, we reverse the human supply chain, we push all of our mining and manufacturing outside the atmosphere, what have we done? We've now zoned the Earth for residential access only. Imagine if you walked outside one day and there were no factories, no power plants, no refineries, no oil rigs, no pipelines to protest, and instead we simply allowed the planet to return to a more natural state, we intentionally stabilized our environment. We'd have more space here on Earth, more room for the population, because we're not trying to live on top of our consumable resource base. And to be clear, this is not a vision about scarcity. And yes, we still have to conserve all of the precious resources we have here at home. But this is a vision about abundance. It's about having access to all of the resources we need to grow as a civilization. They're simply coming from a different place. Now, I know, I know this sounds impossible, but it's happening fast, faster than you could ever imagine, and it's already started. My kids are two. By the time they're in high school, they will see operational asteroid mines. They'll grow up in a world knowing that the resources we need do not simply come from only this planet. As a parent this gives me a lot of hope, because I want to create a world for those kids that gets better and better, not worse and worse. And when someone asks them, "Why we should be exploring space when we have so many problems here at home?", they will know the answer to that. The resources of space are the solutions to our greatest problems. It is only by exploring space that we safeguard this world, the one that matters the most. This is what I ask of you: believe that this is possible, because for the very first time in human history, it is possible. When we access the infinite resources of space, we do so so we can protect and preserve the single most important asset that we know of anywhere in the universe, the only place that we know of that can support human life: our home, Earth. Thank you. (Applause)

Frequently Occurring Word Combinations

ngrams of length 2

collocation frequency
resource consumption 3
raw materials 3
dominant species 2
longer suitable 2
billion people 2
infinite quantities 2
solar system 2
resource base 2
hazardous waste 2
exploring space 2

Important Words

  1. abundance
  2. access
  3. adventurous
  4. affordable
  5. air
  6. allowed
  7. alter
  8. alternative
  9. amassed
  10. amount
  11. answer
  12. anymore
  13. applause
  14. artificial
  15. asks
  16. assembled
  17. asset
  18. assumed
  19. asteroid
  20. asteroids
  21. astronauts
  22. atmosphere
  23. auditorium
  24. autonomous
  25. bad
  26. base
  27. batteries
  28. beam
  29. begins
  30. beings
  31. benzene
  32. big
  33. bigger
  34. billion
  35. biological
  36. breathable
  37. breathing
  38. build
  39. building
  40. built
  41. buried
  42. byproduct
  43. capabilities
  44. capable
  45. capture
  46. case
  47. chain
  48. cheap
  49. chemicals
  50. cities
  51. civilization
  52. clear
  53. coal
  54. cobalt
  55. collapse
  56. comets
  57. coming
  58. commerce
  59. commercial
  60. company
  61. component
  62. computing
  63. conserve
  64. consistently
  65. constrained
  66. constraint
  67. construction
  68. consumable
  69. consume
  70. consumes
  71. consuming
  72. consumption
  73. converted
  74. cost
  75. create
  76. created
  77. crisis
  78. critical
  79. data
  80. day
  81. deep
  82. definition
  83. demand
  84. depots
  85. designed
  86. destination
  87. destroy
  88. dispatch
  89. dollars
  90. dominant
  91. drill
  92. driver
  93. drives
  94. earth
  95. ecosystem
  96. electrical
  97. electricity
  98. emerging
  99. emissions
  100. energy
  101. engineers
  102. environment
  103. equivalent
  104. europe
  105. exists
  106. expand
  107. expensive
  108. experts
  109. explorers
  110. exploring
  111. facilities
  112. factor
  113. factories
  114. factory
  115. farms
  116. fast
  117. faster
  118. feed
  119. feet
  120. fiction
  121. field
  122. final
  123. find
  124. finished
  125. finite
  126. fish
  127. fit
  128. fob
  129. food
  130. fuel
  131. fuels
  132. function
  133. future
  134. gas
  135. gather
  136. good
  137. granted
  138. gravity
  139. greatest
  140. grid
  141. grow
  142. growing
  143. grows
  144. happen
  145. happening
  146. harvest
  147. hazardous
  148. head
  149. heads
  150. heard
  151. heavy
  152. high
  153. history
  154. hold
  155. home
  156. hope
  157. hotels
  158. hours
  159. house
  160. huge
  161. human
  162. humans
  163. hydrogen
  164. hygiene
  165. imagination
  166. imagine
  167. impact
  168. import
  169. important
  170. impossible
  171. improve
  172. incredible
  173. industrial
  174. inefficiencies
  175. infinite
  176. intelligence
  177. intentionally
  178. international
  179. involves
  180. iron
  181. key
  182. kids
  183. knowing
  184. labs
  185. land
  186. landed
  187. large
  188. largest
  189. laughter
  190. launch
  191. launched
  192. life
  193. limited
  194. liquid
  195. livable
  196. live
  197. living
  198. load
  199. loaded
  200. logistical
  201. longer
  202. lot
  203. macrogrids
  204. manufactured
  205. manufacturing
  206. mass
  207. massive
  208. materials
  209. matters
  210. means
  211. megastructures
  212. metal
  213. metals
  214. meteorite
  215. microgrid
  216. mimicking
  217. minerals
  218. mines
  219. mining
  220. minute
  221. moon
  222. move
  223. natural
  224. nature
  225. nickel
  226. object
  227. ocean
  228. oil
  229. operational
  230. orbital
  231. oxygen
  232. panels
  233. parent
  234. part
  235. partnerships
  236. pass
  237. passing
  238. people
  239. phone
  240. pipelines
  241. place
  242. plan
  243. planet
  244. planetary
  245. planets
  246. plants
  247. platinum
  248. plumbing
  249. point
  250. poisoning
  251. poisons
  252. poles
  253. population
  254. populations
  255. power
  256. precious
  257. presents
  258. preserve
  259. prevent
  260. primary
  261. problem
  262. problems
  263. produce
  264. produces
  265. production
  266. products
  267. propellant
  268. protect
  269. protest
  270. prove
  271. proven
  272. pure
  273. push
  274. put
  275. quantities
  276. quickly
  277. race
  278. radiation
  279. raw
  280. readily
  281. reason
  282. reduce
  283. refineries
  284. remains
  285. remove
  286. reproduce
  287. research
  288. residential
  289. resource
  290. resources
  291. return
  292. reverse
  293. rigs
  294. ring
  295. robotic
  296. robots
  297. rocket
  298. rockets
  299. room
  300. roughly
  301. running
  302. safeguard
  303. satellite
  304. satellites
  305. save
  306. scarcity
  307. scary
  308. scenario
  309. school
  310. science
  311. scientists
  312. sell
  313. send
  314. sense
  315. set
  316. severe
  317. shame
  318. shines
  319. ship
  320. show
  321. shower
  322. sights
  323. silicon
  324. simply
  325. single
  326. sitting
  327. size
  328. smartest
  329. smartphone
  330. solar
  331. solutions
  332. solve
  333. sounds
  334. source
  335. sourcing
  336. sovereign
  337. space
  338. spacecraft
  339. species
  340. spun
  341. stabilized
  342. start
  343. started
  344. starts
  345. state
  346. states
  347. station
  348. stations
  349. step
  350. store
  351. strategic
  352. strong
  353. structures
  354. stuck
  355. study
  356. suitable
  357. sun
  358. supply
  359. support
  360. surface
  361. survive
  362. sustenance
  363. system
  364. takes
  365. technological
  366. technology
  367. time
  368. today
  369. toolkit
  370. top
  371. tourists
  372. toxic
  373. toxins
  374. turn
  375. turned
  376. united
  377. universe
  378. unstable
  379. utilities
  380. vantage
  381. vast
  382. vastly
  383. view
  384. viewpoint
  385. violent
  386. vision
  387. walked
  388. waste
  389. water
  390. wildlife
  391. wind
  392. wood
  393. work
  394. working
  395. world
  396. worse
  397. worst
  398. year
  399. zoned