full transcript

From the Ted Talk by Chris Fisher: Why we should archive everything on the planet

Unscramble the Blue Letters

The most astounding place I've ever been is the Mosquitia rainforest in Honduras. I've done archaeological fieldwork all over the world, so I thought I knew what to expect venturing into the jungle, but I was wrong - for the first time in my life, I might add. (luhaegtr) First of all, it's fieernzg. It's 90 dgeeres, but you're soaking wet from the humidity, and the canopy of teres is so thick that sunlight never reaches the surface. You can't get dry. Immediately, I knew that I hadn't brought enough clothing. That first night, I kept feeling things moving underneath my hammock, unknown creatures brushing and poking against the thin nylon fabric. And I could barely sleep through all the noise. The junlge is loud. It's shockingly loud. It's like being downtown in a bniulstg city. As the nhgit wore on, I became increasingly frustrated with my sleeplessness, knowing I had a full day ahead. When I flnaliy got up at dawn, my ssene of unseen things was all too real. There were hoofprints, paw prints, laeinr snake tracks everywhere. And what's even more shocking, we saw those same animals in the daylight, and they were completely unafraid of us. They had no experience with people. They had no reason to be afraid. As I walked towards the undocumented city, my reason for being there, I realized that this was the only place that I'd ever been where I didn't see a snlige shred of plastic. That's how rmeote it was. Perhaps it's surprising to learn that there are still places on our planet that are so uutncoehd by people, but it's true. There are still hundreds of places where pepole haven't stepped for centuries, or maybe forever. It's an awesome time to be an agrohoieaclst. We have the tools and the technology to understand our planet like never before. And yet we're running out of time. The ciltmae crisis threatens to destroy our ecological and clturual patrimony. I feel an unrcgey to my work that I didn't feel 20 years ago. How can we document everything before it's too late? I was tenraid as a traditional archaeologist using methodologies that have been around since the '50s. That all changed in July of 2009 in Michoacán, mxeico. I was studying the ancient Purépecha empire, which is a lesser known but equally important contemporary of the Aztec. Two weeks erlaeir, my team had documented an unknown seeetltnmt, so we were painstakingly mpanpig building foundations by hand - hundreds of them. Basic archaeological protocol is to find the edge of a settlement so you know what you're dealing with. And my graduate students convinced me to do just that. So I grabbed a couple of CLIF Bars, some water, a walkie, and I set out alone on foot, enxtcpeig to encounter the edge in just a few minutes. A few minutes passed, and then an hour. Finally, I reached the other side of the malpais. Oh, there were ancient building foundations all the way across. It's a city? Oh, shit. (Laughter) It's a city. tnurs out that this seemingly small settlement was actually an ancient urban megalopolis, 26 square kilometers in size, with as many bliiudng foundations as modern-day mtatnahan, an archaeological settlement so large that it would take me decades to survey fully, the eitrne rest of my career, which was exactly how I didn't want to snepd the entire rest of my cerear ... (Laughter) sweating, exhausted, pltnaacig stressed-out graduate stnudets ... (Laughter) tossing scraps of PB&J sandwiches to feral dogs, which is pointless, by the way, because Mexican dogs really don't like pnueat butter. (Laughter) Just the thought of it bored me to tears. So I returned home to Colorado, and I poked my head through a colleague's door. Dude! There's got to be a better way! He asekd if I had heard of this new technology called LiDAR - Light dtocieetn and Ranging. I looked it up. LiDAR ivvonels shooting a dense grid of laser pulses from an airplane to the ground's surface. What you end up with is a high resolution scan of the earth's surface and everything on it. It's not an image, but instead it's a dense, three dimensional plot of points. We had enough money in to scan, so we did just that. The canpomy went to Mexico, they flew the LiDAR, and they sent back the data. Over the next several months, I learned to practice digital deforestation, filtering away trees, brush and other vegetation to reveal the ancient cultural landscape below. When I looked at my first vuiaostiialzn, I began to cry, which I know comes as quite a shock to you given how manly I must seem. (Laughter) In just 45 mtinues of flying, the LiDAR had collected the same amount of data as what would have taken decades by hand: every house foundation, building, road and pimrayd, incredible detail, rrtseinpeeng the lives of thousands of people who lived and loved and died in these spaces. And what's more, the quality of the data wasn't comparable to traditional archaeological research. It was much, much better. I knew that this technology would change the entire field of archaeology in the coming years. And it did. Our work came to the aioettntn of a group of fiermalmks who were searching for a legendary lost city in Honduras. They failed in their quest, but they instead documented an unknown culture now buried under a pristine wilderness rainforest, using LiDAR. I agreed to help interpret their data, which is how I found myself deep in that Mosquitia jungle, plastic-free and felild with curious animals. Our goal was to verify that the archaeological features we identified in our LiDAR were actually there on the ground, and they were. Eleven mntohs later, I returned with a crack team of aeltgcoriaoshs, sponsored by the National Geographic Society and the Honduran government. In a mnoth, we ecatevxad over 400 objects from what we now call the City of the Jaguar. We felt a moral and eicathl responsibility to protect the site as it was, but in the short time that we were there, things iavnebtliy changed. The tiny gravel bar where we first landed our helicopter was gone. The brush had been cleared away and the trees were mvoed to create a large landing zone for several helicopters at once. Without it, after just one rainy season, the aicnnet canals that we had seen in our ladir scan were damaged or destroyed. And the Eden I described soon had a large clearing, central camp, lights and an outdoor chapel. In other words, despite our best efforts to protect the site as it was, things cagehnd. Our initial LiDAR scan of this City of the Jaguar is the only record of this place as it existed just a few years ago. And broadly speaking, this is a problem for archaeologists. We can't sudty an area without cianhngg it somehow, and regardless, the ertah is changing. arceolacgioahl sites are dysreoted, history is lost. Just this year, we watched in horror as the Notre Dame Cathedral went up in flames. The iconic spire csllaepod, and the roof was all but destroyed. murlicosualy, the art historian Andrew taloln and colleagues scanned the cathedral in 2010 using LiDAR. At the time, their goal was to understand how the building was constructed. Now, their LiDAR scan is the most coipvesnhmere record of the cathedral, and it will prove ivbnuaalle in the reconstruction. They couldn't have anticipated the fire or how their scan would be used, but we are lucky to have it. We take for ganterd that our cultural and eaooccligl patrimony will be around forever. It won't. Organizations like SCI-Arc and Virtual Wonders are doing incredible work to record the world's historic monuments, but nothing similar esitxs for the earth's landscapes. We've lost 50 pencert of our riasnfoert. We lose 18 million acres of forest every year. And rising sea lvlees will make cities, countries and continents ctepelomly unrecognizable. Unless we have a record of these pcaels, no one in the future will know they existed. If the earth is the ttainic, we've struck the iceberg, everyone's on deck, and the orchestra is playing. The climate crisis tahneetrs to destroy our cultural and ecological patrimony within decades. But sitnitg on our hands and doing nothing is not an oopitn. Shouldn't we save everything we can on the libetfoas? (Applause) Looking at my sancs from Honduras and Mexico, it's clear that we need to scan, scan, scan now as much as possible, while we still can. That's what inspired the Earth Archive, an unprecedented scientific erfoft to LiDAR-scan the entire pleant, starting with areas that are most threatened. Its purpose is threefold. Number one: create a bsalniee record of the earth as it exists toady to more effectively mattgiie the climate crisis. To measure change, you need two sets of data: a before and an after. Right now, we don't have a high-resolution before-data set for much of the planet, so we can't measure change, and we can't evaluate which of our current efforts to combat the climate crisis are making a positive impact. Number two: cteare a virtual planet so that any number of scientists can study our earth today. Archaeologists like me can look for undocumented settlements. Ecologists can study tree size, forest composition and age. Geologists can study hydrology, fultas, disturbance. The pstoesiiibils are endless. Number three: preserve a record of the planet for our grandchildren's grandchildren so they can reconstruct and study lost cultural patrimony in the future. As science and technology advance, they'll apply new tloos, algorithms, even AI to LiDAR scans done today and ask questions that we can't currently conceive of. Like Notre Dame, we can't imagine how these records will be used, but we know that they'll be critically important. The Earth Archive is the ultimate gift to future generations. Because the truth be told, I won't live long enough to see its full impact and neither will you. That's exactly why it's wtorh doing. The Earth arhvcie is a bet on the future of humanity. It's a bet that together, collectively, as people and as scientists, that we'll face the climate cisris, and that we'll choose to do the right thing, not just for us today, but to honor those who came before us and to pay it forward to future generations who will crary on our legacy. Thank you. (apslupae)

Open Cloze

The most astounding place I've ever been is the Mosquitia rainforest in Honduras. I've done archaeological fieldwork all over the world, so I thought I knew what to expect venturing into the jungle, but I was wrong - for the first time in my life, I might add. (________) First of all, it's ________. It's 90 _______, but you're soaking wet from the humidity, and the canopy of _____ is so thick that sunlight never reaches the surface. You can't get dry. Immediately, I knew that I hadn't brought enough clothing. That first night, I kept feeling things moving underneath my hammock, unknown creatures brushing and poking against the thin nylon fabric. And I could barely sleep through all the noise. The ______ is loud. It's shockingly loud. It's like being downtown in a ________ city. As the _____ wore on, I became increasingly frustrated with my sleeplessness, knowing I had a full day ahead. When I _______ got up at dawn, my _____ of unseen things was all too real. There were hoofprints, paw prints, ______ snake tracks everywhere. And what's even more shocking, we saw those same animals in the daylight, and they were completely unafraid of us. They had no experience with people. They had no reason to be afraid. As I walked towards the undocumented city, my reason for being there, I realized that this was the only place that I'd ever been where I didn't see a ______ shred of plastic. That's how ______ it was. Perhaps it's surprising to learn that there are still places on our planet that are so _________ by people, but it's true. There are still hundreds of places where ______ haven't stepped for centuries, or maybe forever. It's an awesome time to be an _____________. We have the tools and the technology to understand our planet like never before. And yet we're running out of time. The _______ crisis threatens to destroy our ecological and ________ patrimony. I feel an _______ to my work that I didn't feel 20 years ago. How can we document everything before it's too late? I was _______ as a traditional archaeologist using methodologies that have been around since the '50s. That all changed in July of 2009 in Michoacán, ______. I was studying the ancient Purépecha empire, which is a lesser known but equally important contemporary of the Aztec. Two weeks _______, my team had documented an unknown __________, so we were painstakingly _______ building foundations by hand - hundreds of them. Basic archaeological protocol is to find the edge of a settlement so you know what you're dealing with. And my graduate students convinced me to do just that. So I grabbed a couple of CLIF Bars, some water, a walkie, and I set out alone on foot, _________ to encounter the edge in just a few minutes. A few minutes passed, and then an hour. Finally, I reached the other side of the malpais. Oh, there were ancient building foundations all the way across. It's a city? Oh, shit. (Laughter) It's a city. _____ out that this seemingly small settlement was actually an ancient urban megalopolis, 26 square kilometers in size, with as many ________ foundations as modern-day _________, an archaeological settlement so large that it would take me decades to survey fully, the ______ rest of my career, which was exactly how I didn't want to _____ the entire rest of my ______ ... (Laughter) sweating, exhausted, _________ stressed-out graduate ________ ... (Laughter) tossing scraps of PB&J sandwiches to feral dogs, which is pointless, by the way, because Mexican dogs really don't like ______ butter. (Laughter) Just the thought of it bored me to tears. So I returned home to Colorado, and I poked my head through a colleague's door. Dude! There's got to be a better way! He _____ if I had heard of this new technology called LiDAR - Light _________ and Ranging. I looked it up. LiDAR ________ shooting a dense grid of laser pulses from an airplane to the ground's surface. What you end up with is a high resolution scan of the earth's surface and everything on it. It's not an image, but instead it's a dense, three dimensional plot of points. We had enough money in to scan, so we did just that. The _______ went to Mexico, they flew the LiDAR, and they sent back the data. Over the next several months, I learned to practice digital deforestation, filtering away trees, brush and other vegetation to reveal the ancient cultural landscape below. When I looked at my first _____________, I began to cry, which I know comes as quite a shock to you given how manly I must seem. (Laughter) In just 45 _______ of flying, the LiDAR had collected the same amount of data as what would have taken decades by hand: every house foundation, building, road and _______, incredible detail, ____________ the lives of thousands of people who lived and loved and died in these spaces. And what's more, the quality of the data wasn't comparable to traditional archaeological research. It was much, much better. I knew that this technology would change the entire field of archaeology in the coming years. And it did. Our work came to the _________ of a group of __________ who were searching for a legendary lost city in Honduras. They failed in their quest, but they instead documented an unknown culture now buried under a pristine wilderness rainforest, using LiDAR. I agreed to help interpret their data, which is how I found myself deep in that Mosquitia jungle, plastic-free and ______ with curious animals. Our goal was to verify that the archaeological features we identified in our LiDAR were actually there on the ground, and they were. Eleven ______ later, I returned with a crack team of ______________, sponsored by the National Geographic Society and the Honduran government. In a _____, we _________ over 400 objects from what we now call the City of the Jaguar. We felt a moral and _______ responsibility to protect the site as it was, but in the short time that we were there, things __________ changed. The tiny gravel bar where we first landed our helicopter was gone. The brush had been cleared away and the trees were _____ to create a large landing zone for several helicopters at once. Without it, after just one rainy season, the _______ canals that we had seen in our _____ scan were damaged or destroyed. And the Eden I described soon had a large clearing, central camp, lights and an outdoor chapel. In other words, despite our best efforts to protect the site as it was, things _______. Our initial LiDAR scan of this City of the Jaguar is the only record of this place as it existed just a few years ago. And broadly speaking, this is a problem for archaeologists. We can't _____ an area without ________ it somehow, and regardless, the _____ is changing. ______________ sites are _________, history is lost. Just this year, we watched in horror as the Notre Dame Cathedral went up in flames. The iconic spire _________, and the roof was all but destroyed. ____________, the art historian Andrew ______ and colleagues scanned the cathedral in 2010 using LiDAR. At the time, their goal was to understand how the building was constructed. Now, their LiDAR scan is the most _____________ record of the cathedral, and it will prove __________ in the reconstruction. They couldn't have anticipated the fire or how their scan would be used, but we are lucky to have it. We take for _______ that our cultural and __________ patrimony will be around forever. It won't. Organizations like SCI-Arc and Virtual Wonders are doing incredible work to record the world's historic monuments, but nothing similar ______ for the earth's landscapes. We've lost 50 _______ of our __________. We lose 18 million acres of forest every year. And rising sea ______ will make cities, countries and continents __________ unrecognizable. Unless we have a record of these ______, no one in the future will know they existed. If the earth is the _______, we've struck the iceberg, everyone's on deck, and the orchestra is playing. The climate crisis _________ to destroy our cultural and ecological patrimony within decades. But _______ on our hands and doing nothing is not an ______. Shouldn't we save everything we can on the _________? (Applause) Looking at my _____ from Honduras and Mexico, it's clear that we need to scan, scan, scan now as much as possible, while we still can. That's what inspired the Earth Archive, an unprecedented scientific ______ to LiDAR-scan the entire ______, starting with areas that are most threatened. Its purpose is threefold. Number one: create a ________ record of the earth as it exists _____ to more effectively ________ the climate crisis. To measure change, you need two sets of data: a before and an after. Right now, we don't have a high-resolution before-data set for much of the planet, so we can't measure change, and we can't evaluate which of our current efforts to combat the climate crisis are making a positive impact. Number two: ______ a virtual planet so that any number of scientists can study our earth today. Archaeologists like me can look for undocumented settlements. Ecologists can study tree size, forest composition and age. Geologists can study hydrology, ______, disturbance. The _____________ are endless. Number three: preserve a record of the planet for our grandchildren's grandchildren so they can reconstruct and study lost cultural patrimony in the future. As science and technology advance, they'll apply new _____, algorithms, even AI to LiDAR scans done today and ask questions that we can't currently conceive of. Like Notre Dame, we can't imagine how these records will be used, but we know that they'll be critically important. The Earth Archive is the ultimate gift to future generations. Because the truth be told, I won't live long enough to see its full impact and neither will you. That's exactly why it's _____ doing. The Earth _______ is a bet on the future of humanity. It's a bet that together, collectively, as people and as scientists, that we'll face the climate ______, and that we'll choose to do the right thing, not just for us today, but to honor those who came before us and to pay it forward to future generations who will _____ on our legacy. Thank you. (________)

Solution

  1. night
  2. today
  3. collapsed
  4. company
  5. trees
  6. percent
  7. urgency
  8. mapping
  9. earlier
  10. placating
  11. possibilities
  12. option
  13. minutes
  14. carry
  15. linear
  16. moved
  17. building
  18. archaeologist
  19. trained
  20. titanic
  21. sitting
  22. visualization
  23. months
  24. pyramid
  25. single
  26. career
  27. lidar
  28. turns
  29. manhattan
  30. climate
  31. students
  32. changing
  33. places
  34. faults
  35. study
  36. representing
  37. inevitably
  38. untouched
  39. granted
  40. filmmakers
  41. earth
  42. archive
  43. asked
  44. applause
  45. ecological
  46. crisis
  47. laughter
  48. finally
  49. comprehensive
  50. sense
  51. lifeboats
  52. baseline
  53. tools
  54. remote
  55. exists
  56. month
  57. completely
  58. create
  59. changed
  60. spend
  61. detection
  62. tallon
  63. peanut
  64. scans
  65. effort
  66. filled
  67. attention
  68. destroyed
  69. degrees
  70. threatens
  71. settlement
  72. jungle
  73. people
  74. archaeological
  75. freezing
  76. invaluable
  77. involves
  78. mitigate
  79. rainforest
  80. entire
  81. ancient
  82. archaeologists
  83. bustling
  84. excavated
  85. expecting
  86. ethical
  87. mexico
  88. planet
  89. miraculously
  90. worth
  91. cultural
  92. levels

Original Text

The most astounding place I've ever been is the Mosquitia rainforest in Honduras. I've done archaeological fieldwork all over the world, so I thought I knew what to expect venturing into the jungle, but I was wrong - for the first time in my life, I might add. (Laughter) First of all, it's freezing. It's 90 degrees, but you're soaking wet from the humidity, and the canopy of trees is so thick that sunlight never reaches the surface. You can't get dry. Immediately, I knew that I hadn't brought enough clothing. That first night, I kept feeling things moving underneath my hammock, unknown creatures brushing and poking against the thin nylon fabric. And I could barely sleep through all the noise. The jungle is loud. It's shockingly loud. It's like being downtown in a bustling city. As the night wore on, I became increasingly frustrated with my sleeplessness, knowing I had a full day ahead. When I finally got up at dawn, my sense of unseen things was all too real. There were hoofprints, paw prints, linear snake tracks everywhere. And what's even more shocking, we saw those same animals in the daylight, and they were completely unafraid of us. They had no experience with people. They had no reason to be afraid. As I walked towards the undocumented city, my reason for being there, I realized that this was the only place that I'd ever been where I didn't see a single shred of plastic. That's how remote it was. Perhaps it's surprising to learn that there are still places on our planet that are so untouched by people, but it's true. There are still hundreds of places where people haven't stepped for centuries, or maybe forever. It's an awesome time to be an archaeologist. We have the tools and the technology to understand our planet like never before. And yet we're running out of time. The climate crisis threatens to destroy our ecological and cultural patrimony. I feel an urgency to my work that I didn't feel 20 years ago. How can we document everything before it's too late? I was trained as a traditional archaeologist using methodologies that have been around since the '50s. That all changed in July of 2009 in Michoacán, Mexico. I was studying the ancient Purépecha empire, which is a lesser known but equally important contemporary of the Aztec. Two weeks earlier, my team had documented an unknown settlement, so we were painstakingly mapping building foundations by hand - hundreds of them. Basic archaeological protocol is to find the edge of a settlement so you know what you're dealing with. And my graduate students convinced me to do just that. So I grabbed a couple of CLIF Bars, some water, a walkie, and I set out alone on foot, expecting to encounter the edge in just a few minutes. A few minutes passed, and then an hour. Finally, I reached the other side of the malpais. Oh, there were ancient building foundations all the way across. It's a city? Oh, shit. (Laughter) It's a city. Turns out that this seemingly small settlement was actually an ancient urban megalopolis, 26 square kilometers in size, with as many building foundations as modern-day Manhattan, an archaeological settlement so large that it would take me decades to survey fully, the entire rest of my career, which was exactly how I didn't want to spend the entire rest of my career ... (Laughter) sweating, exhausted, placating stressed-out graduate students ... (Laughter) tossing scraps of PB&J sandwiches to feral dogs, which is pointless, by the way, because Mexican dogs really don't like peanut butter. (Laughter) Just the thought of it bored me to tears. So I returned home to Colorado, and I poked my head through a colleague's door. Dude! There's got to be a better way! He asked if I had heard of this new technology called LiDAR - Light Detection and Ranging. I looked it up. LiDAR involves shooting a dense grid of laser pulses from an airplane to the ground's surface. What you end up with is a high resolution scan of the earth's surface and everything on it. It's not an image, but instead it's a dense, three dimensional plot of points. We had enough money in to scan, so we did just that. The company went to Mexico, they flew the LiDAR, and they sent back the data. Over the next several months, I learned to practice digital deforestation, filtering away trees, brush and other vegetation to reveal the ancient cultural landscape below. When I looked at my first visualization, I began to cry, which I know comes as quite a shock to you given how manly I must seem. (Laughter) In just 45 minutes of flying, the LiDAR had collected the same amount of data as what would have taken decades by hand: every house foundation, building, road and pyramid, incredible detail, representing the lives of thousands of people who lived and loved and died in these spaces. And what's more, the quality of the data wasn't comparable to traditional archaeological research. It was much, much better. I knew that this technology would change the entire field of archaeology in the coming years. And it did. Our work came to the attention of a group of filmmakers who were searching for a legendary lost city in Honduras. They failed in their quest, but they instead documented an unknown culture now buried under a pristine wilderness rainforest, using LiDAR. I agreed to help interpret their data, which is how I found myself deep in that Mosquitia jungle, plastic-free and filled with curious animals. Our goal was to verify that the archaeological features we identified in our LiDAR were actually there on the ground, and they were. Eleven months later, I returned with a crack team of archaeologists, sponsored by the National Geographic Society and the Honduran government. In a month, we excavated over 400 objects from what we now call the City of the Jaguar. We felt a moral and ethical responsibility to protect the site as it was, but in the short time that we were there, things inevitably changed. The tiny gravel bar where we first landed our helicopter was gone. The brush had been cleared away and the trees were moved to create a large landing zone for several helicopters at once. Without it, after just one rainy season, the ancient canals that we had seen in our LiDAR scan were damaged or destroyed. And the Eden I described soon had a large clearing, central camp, lights and an outdoor chapel. In other words, despite our best efforts to protect the site as it was, things changed. Our initial LiDAR scan of this City of the Jaguar is the only record of this place as it existed just a few years ago. And broadly speaking, this is a problem for archaeologists. We can't study an area without changing it somehow, and regardless, the earth is changing. Archaeological sites are destroyed, history is lost. Just this year, we watched in horror as the Notre Dame Cathedral went up in flames. The iconic spire collapsed, and the roof was all but destroyed. Miraculously, the art historian Andrew Tallon and colleagues scanned the cathedral in 2010 using LiDAR. At the time, their goal was to understand how the building was constructed. Now, their LiDAR scan is the most comprehensive record of the cathedral, and it will prove invaluable in the reconstruction. They couldn't have anticipated the fire or how their scan would be used, but we are lucky to have it. We take for granted that our cultural and ecological patrimony will be around forever. It won't. Organizations like SCI-Arc and Virtual Wonders are doing incredible work to record the world's historic monuments, but nothing similar exists for the earth's landscapes. We've lost 50 percent of our rainforest. We lose 18 million acres of forest every year. And rising sea levels will make cities, countries and continents completely unrecognizable. Unless we have a record of these places, no one in the future will know they existed. If the earth is the Titanic, we've struck the iceberg, everyone's on deck, and the orchestra is playing. The climate crisis threatens to destroy our cultural and ecological patrimony within decades. But sitting on our hands and doing nothing is not an option. Shouldn't we save everything we can on the lifeboats? (Applause) Looking at my scans from Honduras and Mexico, it's clear that we need to scan, scan, scan now as much as possible, while we still can. That's what inspired the Earth Archive, an unprecedented scientific effort to LiDAR-scan the entire planet, starting with areas that are most threatened. Its purpose is threefold. Number one: create a baseline record of the earth as it exists today to more effectively mitigate the climate crisis. To measure change, you need two sets of data: a before and an after. Right now, we don't have a high-resolution before-data set for much of the planet, so we can't measure change, and we can't evaluate which of our current efforts to combat the climate crisis are making a positive impact. Number two: create a virtual planet so that any number of scientists can study our earth today. Archaeologists like me can look for undocumented settlements. Ecologists can study tree size, forest composition and age. Geologists can study hydrology, faults, disturbance. The possibilities are endless. Number three: preserve a record of the planet for our grandchildren's grandchildren so they can reconstruct and study lost cultural patrimony in the future. As science and technology advance, they'll apply new tools, algorithms, even AI to LiDAR scans done today and ask questions that we can't currently conceive of. Like Notre Dame, we can't imagine how these records will be used, but we know that they'll be critically important. The Earth Archive is the ultimate gift to future generations. Because the truth be told, I won't live long enough to see its full impact and neither will you. That's exactly why it's worth doing. The Earth Archive is a bet on the future of humanity. It's a bet that together, collectively, as people and as scientists, that we'll face the climate crisis, and that we'll choose to do the right thing, not just for us today, but to honor those who came before us and to pay it forward to future generations who will carry on our legacy. Thank you. (Applause)

Frequently Occurring Word Combinations

ngrams of length 2

collocation frequency
climate crisis 4
building foundations 3
lidar scan 3
crisis threatens 2
cultural patrimony 2
graduate students 2
entire rest 2
ecological patrimony 2
earth archive 2
future generations 2

ngrams of length 3

collocation frequency
climate crisis threatens 2

Important Words

  1. acres
  2. add
  3. advance
  4. afraid
  5. age
  6. agreed
  7. ai
  8. airplane
  9. algorithms
  10. amount
  11. ancient
  12. andrew
  13. animals
  14. anticipated
  15. applause
  16. apply
  17. archaeological
  18. archaeologist
  19. archaeologists
  20. archaeology
  21. archive
  22. area
  23. areas
  24. art
  25. asked
  26. astounding
  27. attention
  28. awesome
  29. aztec
  30. bar
  31. barely
  32. bars
  33. baseline
  34. basic
  35. began
  36. bet
  37. bored
  38. broadly
  39. brought
  40. brush
  41. brushing
  42. building
  43. buried
  44. bustling
  45. butter
  46. call
  47. called
  48. camp
  49. canals
  50. canopy
  51. career
  52. carry
  53. cathedral
  54. central
  55. centuries
  56. change
  57. changed
  58. changing
  59. chapel
  60. choose
  61. cities
  62. city
  63. clear
  64. cleared
  65. clearing
  66. clif
  67. climate
  68. clothing
  69. collapsed
  70. colleagues
  71. collected
  72. collectively
  73. colorado
  74. combat
  75. coming
  76. company
  77. comparable
  78. completely
  79. composition
  80. comprehensive
  81. conceive
  82. constructed
  83. contemporary
  84. continents
  85. convinced
  86. countries
  87. couple
  88. crack
  89. create
  90. creatures
  91. crisis
  92. critically
  93. cry
  94. cultural
  95. culture
  96. curious
  97. current
  98. damaged
  99. dame
  100. data
  101. dawn
  102. day
  103. daylight
  104. dealing
  105. decades
  106. deck
  107. deep
  108. deforestation
  109. degrees
  110. dense
  111. destroy
  112. destroyed
  113. detail
  114. detection
  115. died
  116. digital
  117. dimensional
  118. disturbance
  119. document
  120. documented
  121. dogs
  122. door
  123. downtown
  124. dry
  125. earlier
  126. earth
  127. ecological
  128. ecologists
  129. eden
  130. edge
  131. effectively
  132. effort
  133. efforts
  134. eleven
  135. empire
  136. encounter
  137. endless
  138. entire
  139. equally
  140. ethical
  141. evaluate
  142. excavated
  143. exhausted
  144. existed
  145. exists
  146. expect
  147. expecting
  148. experience
  149. fabric
  150. face
  151. failed
  152. faults
  153. features
  154. feel
  155. feeling
  156. felt
  157. feral
  158. field
  159. fieldwork
  160. filled
  161. filmmakers
  162. filtering
  163. finally
  164. find
  165. fire
  166. flames
  167. flew
  168. flying
  169. foot
  170. forest
  171. foundation
  172. foundations
  173. freezing
  174. frustrated
  175. full
  176. fully
  177. future
  178. generations
  179. geographic
  180. geologists
  181. gift
  182. goal
  183. government
  184. grabbed
  185. graduate
  186. grandchildren
  187. granted
  188. gravel
  189. grid
  190. ground
  191. group
  192. hammock
  193. hand
  194. hands
  195. head
  196. heard
  197. helicopter
  198. helicopters
  199. high
  200. historian
  201. historic
  202. history
  203. home
  204. honduran
  205. honduras
  206. honor
  207. hoofprints
  208. horror
  209. hour
  210. house
  211. humanity
  212. humidity
  213. hundreds
  214. hydrology
  215. iceberg
  216. iconic
  217. identified
  218. image
  219. imagine
  220. immediately
  221. impact
  222. important
  223. increasingly
  224. incredible
  225. inevitably
  226. initial
  227. inspired
  228. interpret
  229. invaluable
  230. involves
  231. jaguar
  232. july
  233. jungle
  234. kilometers
  235. knew
  236. knowing
  237. landed
  238. landing
  239. landscape
  240. landscapes
  241. large
  242. laser
  243. late
  244. laughter
  245. learn
  246. learned
  247. legacy
  248. legendary
  249. lesser
  250. levels
  251. lidar
  252. life
  253. lifeboats
  254. light
  255. lights
  256. linear
  257. live
  258. lived
  259. lives
  260. long
  261. looked
  262. lose
  263. lost
  264. loud
  265. loved
  266. lucky
  267. making
  268. malpais
  269. manhattan
  270. manly
  271. mapping
  272. measure
  273. megalopolis
  274. methodologies
  275. mexican
  276. mexico
  277. michoacán
  278. million
  279. minutes
  280. miraculously
  281. mitigate
  282. money
  283. month
  284. months
  285. monuments
  286. moral
  287. mosquitia
  288. moved
  289. moving
  290. national
  291. night
  292. noise
  293. notre
  294. number
  295. nylon
  296. objects
  297. option
  298. orchestra
  299. organizations
  300. outdoor
  301. painstakingly
  302. passed
  303. patrimony
  304. paw
  305. pay
  306. peanut
  307. people
  308. percent
  309. placating
  310. place
  311. places
  312. planet
  313. plastic
  314. playing
  315. plot
  316. pointless
  317. points
  318. poked
  319. poking
  320. positive
  321. possibilities
  322. practice
  323. preserve
  324. prints
  325. pristine
  326. problem
  327. protect
  328. protocol
  329. prove
  330. pulses
  331. purpose
  332. purépecha
  333. pyramid
  334. quality
  335. quest
  336. questions
  337. rainforest
  338. rainy
  339. ranging
  340. reached
  341. reaches
  342. real
  343. realized
  344. reason
  345. reconstruct
  346. reconstruction
  347. record
  348. records
  349. remote
  350. representing
  351. research
  352. resolution
  353. responsibility
  354. rest
  355. returned
  356. reveal
  357. rising
  358. road
  359. roof
  360. running
  361. sandwiches
  362. save
  363. scan
  364. scanned
  365. scans
  366. science
  367. scientific
  368. scientists
  369. scraps
  370. sea
  371. searching
  372. season
  373. seemingly
  374. sense
  375. set
  376. sets
  377. settlement
  378. settlements
  379. shit
  380. shock
  381. shocking
  382. shockingly
  383. shooting
  384. short
  385. shred
  386. side
  387. similar
  388. single
  389. site
  390. sites
  391. sitting
  392. size
  393. sleep
  394. sleeplessness
  395. small
  396. snake
  397. soaking
  398. society
  399. spaces
  400. speaking
  401. spend
  402. spire
  403. sponsored
  404. square
  405. starting
  406. stepped
  407. struck
  408. students
  409. study
  410. studying
  411. sunlight
  412. surface
  413. surprising
  414. survey
  415. sweating
  416. tallon
  417. team
  418. tears
  419. technology
  420. thick
  421. thin
  422. thought
  423. thousands
  424. threatened
  425. threatens
  426. threefold
  427. time
  428. tiny
  429. titanic
  430. today
  431. told
  432. tools
  433. tossing
  434. tracks
  435. traditional
  436. trained
  437. tree
  438. trees
  439. true
  440. truth
  441. turns
  442. ultimate
  443. unafraid
  444. understand
  445. undocumented
  446. unknown
  447. unprecedented
  448. unrecognizable
  449. unseen
  450. untouched
  451. urban
  452. urgency
  453. vegetation
  454. venturing
  455. verify
  456. virtual
  457. visualization
  458. walked
  459. walkie
  460. watched
  461. water
  462. weeks
  463. wet
  464. wilderness
  465. wonders
  466. words
  467. wore
  468. work
  469. world
  470. worth
  471. wrong
  472. year
  473. years
  474. zone