full transcript

From the Ted Talk by Ayana Elizabeth Johnson and Jennifer Jacquet: Will the ocean ever run out of fish?

Unscramble the Blue Letters

Fish are in trouble. The cod population off Canada's East Coast collapsed in the 1990s, intense recreational and commercial finshig has decimated goliath grouper populations in South Florida, and most pupnoatlios of tuna have plummeted by over 50%, with the Southern Atlantic bluefin on the verge of entoxictin. Those are just a couple of many epeamlxs. Overfishing is happening all over the world. How did this haeppn? When some people think of fishing, they imagine relaxing in a boat and patiently renlieg in the day's cacth. But modern industrial fishing, the kind that stcoks our grocery shelves, looks more like warfare. In fact, the technologies they employ were deveolped for war. Radar, sonar, helicopters, and spotter planes are all used to guide factory ships towards ddnniwilg schools of fish. Long lines with hundreds of hooks or huge nets round up massive amounts of fish, along with other species, like seabirds, turtles, and dolphins. And fish are hauled up onto giant boats, complete with onboard flash freezing and ponsirsecg facilities. All of these technologies have enabled us to catch fish at greater dethps and farther out at sea than ever before. And as the distance and depth of fishing have expanded, so has the variety of species we target. For example, the Patagonian toothfish neither sounds nor looks very appetizing. And fishermen ignored it until the late 1970s. Then it was rebranded and matreekd to chefs in the U.S. as Chilean sea bass, despite the ainmal actually being a type of cod. Soon it was pippong up in mktaers all over the world and is now a deaccily. Unfortunately, these deep water fish don't reproduce until they're at least ten yreas old, making them extremely vulnerable to overfishing when the young are chagut before they've had the chcnae to spawn. Consumer taste and prices can also have harmful effects. For example, shark fin soup is considered such a delicacy in China and Vietnam that the fin has become the most profitable part of the shark. This leads many fishermen to fill their boats with fins leaving millions of dead shakrs behind. The problems aren't unique to toothfish and sharks. Almost 31% of the world's fish populations are overfished, and another 58% are fished at the mxaiumm sustainable level. Wild fish simply can't ruoprcede as fast as 7 boliiln people can eat them. Fishing also has impacts on broader eymstocses. Wild shrimp are typically caught by dragging nets the size of a football field along the ocean bottom, disrupting or destroying seafloor habitats. The catch is often as little as 5% shrimp. The rest is by-catch, unwanted almnais that are thrown back dead. And caoatsl shrimp franimg isn't much better. Mangroves are bulldozed to make room for shrimp frmas, robbing coastal communities of srtom protection and natural water filtration and depriving fish of key nursery habitats. So what does it look like to give fish a break and let them recover? Protection can take many forms. In national waters, gmevreotnns can set limits about how, when, where, and how much fishing occurs, with restrictions on certain botas and equipment. hafruml practices, such as bottom tiranwlg, can be banned altogether, and we can establish marine reserves closed to all fishing to help ecosystems restore themselves. There's also a role for cnuosmer awareness and boycotts to rucede wasteful practices, like shark finning, and push fishing industries towards more sustainable practices. Past interventions have successfully helped depleted fish populations rcvoeer. There are many solutions. The best appcaorh for each fishery must be considered based on sceince, respect for the local communities that rely on the ocean, and for fish as wild animals. And then the rules must be enforced. iriatntnneoal cltlaiooobran is often needed, too, because fish don't care about our borders. We need to end overfishing. Ecosystems, food security, jobs, economies, and coastal cultures all depend on it.

Open Cloze

Fish are in trouble. The cod population off Canada's East Coast collapsed in the 1990s, intense recreational and commercial _______ has decimated goliath grouper populations in South Florida, and most ___________ of tuna have plummeted by over 50%, with the Southern Atlantic bluefin on the verge of __________. Those are just a couple of many ________. Overfishing is happening all over the world. How did this ______? When some people think of fishing, they imagine relaxing in a boat and patiently _______ in the day's _____. But modern industrial fishing, the kind that ______ our grocery shelves, looks more like warfare. In fact, the technologies they employ were _________ for war. Radar, sonar, helicopters, and spotter planes are all used to guide factory ships towards _________ schools of fish. Long lines with hundreds of hooks or huge nets round up massive amounts of fish, along with other species, like seabirds, turtles, and dolphins. And fish are hauled up onto giant boats, complete with onboard flash freezing and __________ facilities. All of these technologies have enabled us to catch fish at greater ______ and farther out at sea than ever before. And as the distance and depth of fishing have expanded, so has the variety of species we target. For example, the Patagonian toothfish neither sounds nor looks very appetizing. And fishermen ignored it until the late 1970s. Then it was rebranded and ________ to chefs in the U.S. as Chilean sea bass, despite the ______ actually being a type of cod. Soon it was _______ up in _______ all over the world and is now a ________. Unfortunately, these deep water fish don't reproduce until they're at least ten _____ old, making them extremely vulnerable to overfishing when the young are ______ before they've had the ______ to spawn. Consumer taste and prices can also have harmful effects. For example, shark fin soup is considered such a delicacy in China and Vietnam that the fin has become the most profitable part of the shark. This leads many fishermen to fill their boats with fins leaving millions of dead ______ behind. The problems aren't unique to toothfish and sharks. Almost 31% of the world's fish populations are overfished, and another 58% are fished at the _______ sustainable level. Wild fish simply can't _________ as fast as 7 _______ people can eat them. Fishing also has impacts on broader __________. Wild shrimp are typically caught by dragging nets the size of a football field along the ocean bottom, disrupting or destroying seafloor habitats. The catch is often as little as 5% shrimp. The rest is by-catch, unwanted _______ that are thrown back dead. And _______ shrimp _______ isn't much better. Mangroves are bulldozed to make room for shrimp _____, robbing coastal communities of _____ protection and natural water filtration and depriving fish of key nursery habitats. So what does it look like to give fish a break and let them recover? Protection can take many forms. In national waters, ___________ can set limits about how, when, where, and how much fishing occurs, with restrictions on certain _____ and equipment. _______ practices, such as bottom ________, can be banned altogether, and we can establish marine reserves closed to all fishing to help ecosystems restore themselves. There's also a role for ________ awareness and boycotts to ______ wasteful practices, like shark finning, and push fishing industries towards more sustainable practices. Past interventions have successfully helped depleted fish populations _______. There are many solutions. The best ________ for each fishery must be considered based on _______, respect for the local communities that rely on the ocean, and for fish as wild animals. And then the rules must be enforced. _____________ _____________ is often needed, too, because fish don't care about our borders. We need to end overfishing. Ecosystems, food security, jobs, economies, and coastal cultures all depend on it.

Solution

  1. marketed
  2. markets
  3. approach
  4. coastal
  5. populations
  6. consumer
  7. reduce
  8. animals
  9. popping
  10. depths
  11. farming
  12. reproduce
  13. dwindling
  14. stocks
  15. trawling
  16. billion
  17. ecosystems
  18. storm
  19. governments
  20. caught
  21. reeling
  22. developed
  23. collaboration
  24. international
  25. harmful
  26. maximum
  27. recover
  28. years
  29. examples
  30. boats
  31. sharks
  32. science
  33. processing
  34. happen
  35. catch
  36. delicacy
  37. farms
  38. extinction
  39. animal
  40. chance
  41. fishing

Original Text

Fish are in trouble. The cod population off Canada's East Coast collapsed in the 1990s, intense recreational and commercial fishing has decimated goliath grouper populations in South Florida, and most populations of tuna have plummeted by over 50%, with the Southern Atlantic bluefin on the verge of extinction. Those are just a couple of many examples. Overfishing is happening all over the world. How did this happen? When some people think of fishing, they imagine relaxing in a boat and patiently reeling in the day's catch. But modern industrial fishing, the kind that stocks our grocery shelves, looks more like warfare. In fact, the technologies they employ were developed for war. Radar, sonar, helicopters, and spotter planes are all used to guide factory ships towards dwindling schools of fish. Long lines with hundreds of hooks or huge nets round up massive amounts of fish, along with other species, like seabirds, turtles, and dolphins. And fish are hauled up onto giant boats, complete with onboard flash freezing and processing facilities. All of these technologies have enabled us to catch fish at greater depths and farther out at sea than ever before. And as the distance and depth of fishing have expanded, so has the variety of species we target. For example, the Patagonian toothfish neither sounds nor looks very appetizing. And fishermen ignored it until the late 1970s. Then it was rebranded and marketed to chefs in the U.S. as Chilean sea bass, despite the animal actually being a type of cod. Soon it was popping up in markets all over the world and is now a delicacy. Unfortunately, these deep water fish don't reproduce until they're at least ten years old, making them extremely vulnerable to overfishing when the young are caught before they've had the chance to spawn. Consumer taste and prices can also have harmful effects. For example, shark fin soup is considered such a delicacy in China and Vietnam that the fin has become the most profitable part of the shark. This leads many fishermen to fill their boats with fins leaving millions of dead sharks behind. The problems aren't unique to toothfish and sharks. Almost 31% of the world's fish populations are overfished, and another 58% are fished at the maximum sustainable level. Wild fish simply can't reproduce as fast as 7 billion people can eat them. Fishing also has impacts on broader ecosystems. Wild shrimp are typically caught by dragging nets the size of a football field along the ocean bottom, disrupting or destroying seafloor habitats. The catch is often as little as 5% shrimp. The rest is by-catch, unwanted animals that are thrown back dead. And coastal shrimp farming isn't much better. Mangroves are bulldozed to make room for shrimp farms, robbing coastal communities of storm protection and natural water filtration and depriving fish of key nursery habitats. So what does it look like to give fish a break and let them recover? Protection can take many forms. In national waters, governments can set limits about how, when, where, and how much fishing occurs, with restrictions on certain boats and equipment. Harmful practices, such as bottom trawling, can be banned altogether, and we can establish marine reserves closed to all fishing to help ecosystems restore themselves. There's also a role for consumer awareness and boycotts to reduce wasteful practices, like shark finning, and push fishing industries towards more sustainable practices. Past interventions have successfully helped depleted fish populations recover. There are many solutions. The best approach for each fishery must be considered based on science, respect for the local communities that rely on the ocean, and for fish as wild animals. And then the rules must be enforced. International collaboration is often needed, too, because fish don't care about our borders. We need to end overfishing. Ecosystems, food security, jobs, economies, and coastal cultures all depend on it.

Frequently Occurring Word Combinations

ngrams of length 2

collocation frequency
fish populations 2

Important Words

  1. altogether
  2. amounts
  3. animal
  4. animals
  5. appetizing
  6. approach
  7. atlantic
  8. awareness
  9. banned
  10. based
  11. bass
  12. billion
  13. bluefin
  14. boat
  15. boats
  16. borders
  17. bottom
  18. boycotts
  19. break
  20. broader
  21. bulldozed
  22. care
  23. catch
  24. caught
  25. chance
  26. chefs
  27. chilean
  28. china
  29. closed
  30. coast
  31. coastal
  32. cod
  33. collaboration
  34. collapsed
  35. commercial
  36. communities
  37. complete
  38. considered
  39. consumer
  40. couple
  41. cultures
  42. dead
  43. decimated
  44. deep
  45. delicacy
  46. depend
  47. depleted
  48. depriving
  49. depth
  50. depths
  51. destroying
  52. developed
  53. disrupting
  54. distance
  55. dolphins
  56. dragging
  57. dwindling
  58. east
  59. eat
  60. economies
  61. ecosystems
  62. effects
  63. employ
  64. enabled
  65. enforced
  66. equipment
  67. establish
  68. examples
  69. expanded
  70. extinction
  71. extremely
  72. facilities
  73. fact
  74. factory
  75. farming
  76. farms
  77. fast
  78. field
  79. fill
  80. filtration
  81. fin
  82. finning
  83. fins
  84. fish
  85. fished
  86. fishermen
  87. fishery
  88. fishing
  89. flash
  90. florida
  91. food
  92. football
  93. forms
  94. freezing
  95. giant
  96. give
  97. goliath
  98. governments
  99. greater
  100. grocery
  101. grouper
  102. guide
  103. habitats
  104. happen
  105. happening
  106. harmful
  107. hauled
  108. helicopters
  109. helped
  110. hooks
  111. huge
  112. hundreds
  113. imagine
  114. impacts
  115. industrial
  116. industries
  117. intense
  118. international
  119. interventions
  120. jobs
  121. key
  122. kind
  123. late
  124. leads
  125. leaving
  126. level
  127. limits
  128. lines
  129. local
  130. long
  131. making
  132. mangroves
  133. marine
  134. marketed
  135. markets
  136. massive
  137. maximum
  138. millions
  139. modern
  140. national
  141. natural
  142. needed
  143. nets
  144. nursery
  145. occurs
  146. ocean
  147. onboard
  148. overfished
  149. overfishing
  150. part
  151. patagonian
  152. patiently
  153. people
  154. planes
  155. plummeted
  156. popping
  157. population
  158. populations
  159. practices
  160. prices
  161. problems
  162. processing
  163. profitable
  164. protection
  165. push
  166. radar
  167. rebranded
  168. recover
  169. recreational
  170. reduce
  171. reeling
  172. relaxing
  173. rely
  174. reproduce
  175. reserves
  176. respect
  177. rest
  178. restore
  179. restrictions
  180. robbing
  181. role
  182. room
  183. rules
  184. schools
  185. science
  186. sea
  187. seabirds
  188. seafloor
  189. security
  190. set
  191. shark
  192. sharks
  193. shelves
  194. ships
  195. shrimp
  196. simply
  197. size
  198. solutions
  199. sonar
  200. sounds
  201. soup
  202. south
  203. southern
  204. spawn
  205. species
  206. spotter
  207. stocks
  208. storm
  209. successfully
  210. sustainable
  211. target
  212. taste
  213. technologies
  214. ten
  215. thrown
  216. toothfish
  217. trawling
  218. trouble
  219. tuna
  220. turtles
  221. type
  222. typically
  223. unique
  224. unwanted
  225. variety
  226. verge
  227. vietnam
  228. vulnerable
  229. war
  230. warfare
  231. wasteful
  232. water
  233. waters
  234. wild
  235. world
  236. years
  237. young