full transcript

From the Ted Talk by David Anderson: Your brain is more than a bag of chemicals

Unscramble the Blue Letters

Now to begin to overcome our ignorance of the role of brain chemistry in biarn ciiutrrcy, it's helpful to work on what we biologists call "model organisms," animals like fruit flies and laboratory mice, in which we can apply powerful genetic techniques to molecularly iiedftny and pinpoint specific classes of neurons, as you heard about in Allan Jones's talk this morning. Moreover, once we can do that, we can actually activate specific neurons or we can destroy or inhibit the acvttiiy of those neurons. So if we inibiht a particular type of neuron, and we find that a bhvoeiar is blocked, we can conclude that those neurons are necessary for that behavior. On the other hand, if we activate a group of nunoers and we find that that produces the behavior, we can conclude that those neurons are sufficient for the behavior. So in this way, by doing this kind of test, we can draw cause and efefct relationships between the activity of specific neurons in particular circuits and particular behaviors, something that is eemltrexy dlificuft, if not impossible, to do right now in humans.

Open Cloze

Now to begin to overcome our ignorance of the role of brain chemistry in _____ _________, it's helpful to work on what we biologists call "model organisms," animals like fruit flies and laboratory mice, in which we can apply powerful genetic techniques to molecularly ________ and pinpoint specific classes of neurons, as you heard about in Allan Jones's talk this morning. Moreover, once we can do that, we can actually activate specific neurons or we can destroy or inhibit the ________ of those neurons. So if we _______ a particular type of neuron, and we find that a ________ is blocked, we can conclude that those neurons are necessary for that behavior. On the other hand, if we activate a group of _______ and we find that that produces the behavior, we can conclude that those neurons are sufficient for the behavior. So in this way, by doing this kind of test, we can draw cause and ______ relationships between the activity of specific neurons in particular circuits and particular behaviors, something that is _________ _________, if not impossible, to do right now in humans.

Solution

  1. difficult
  2. brain
  3. behavior
  4. identify
  5. circuitry
  6. effect
  7. extremely
  8. neurons
  9. activity
  10. inhibit

Original Text

Now to begin to overcome our ignorance of the role of brain chemistry in brain circuitry, it's helpful to work on what we biologists call "model organisms," animals like fruit flies and laboratory mice, in which we can apply powerful genetic techniques to molecularly identify and pinpoint specific classes of neurons, as you heard about in Allan Jones's talk this morning. Moreover, once we can do that, we can actually activate specific neurons or we can destroy or inhibit the activity of those neurons. So if we inhibit a particular type of neuron, and we find that a behavior is blocked, we can conclude that those neurons are necessary for that behavior. On the other hand, if we activate a group of neurons and we find that that produces the behavior, we can conclude that those neurons are sufficient for the behavior. So in this way, by doing this kind of test, we can draw cause and effect relationships between the activity of specific neurons in particular circuits and particular behaviors, something that is extremely difficult, if not impossible, to do right now in humans.

Frequently Occurring Word Combinations

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ngrams of length 3

collocation frequency
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Important Words

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  38. molecularly
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  40. neuron
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  42. organisms
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  52. techniques
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  55. work